© 2010 GMT Games, LLC

1.0 Introduction

2.0 The Game Map

3.0 The Playing Pieces

3.1 Units

3.2 Leaders

3.3 Markers

4.0 Sequence of Play

5.0 Strategy Cards

5.1 General

5.2 Card Deck

5.3 Activation

5.4 Construction

5.5 Events

6.0 Movement

6.1 General

6.2 Land Movement

6.3 Boat Movement

6.4 Naval Movement

6.5 Moving Into Enemy-Occupied Spaces

6.6 Infiltration

6.7 Interception

6.8 Avoid Battle

7.0 Battles

7.1 General

7.2 Resolving Battles

7.3 Militia

7.4 Events Influencing the Combat

7.5 DRMs & Column Shifts

7.6 Step Losses

7.7 Leader Losses

7.8 Winner/Loser

7.9 Retreat

8.0 Forts, Fortresses and Sieges

8.1 Battles Outside Forts or Fortresses

8.2 Sieges

9.0 Assaults

9.1 General

9.2 Winner/Loser

10.0 Raids

10.1 Targets

10.2 Militia Deployment Against Raids

10.3 Resolving a Raid

10.4 Going Home

11.0 Attrition

11.1 Who Suffers Attrition

11.2 Attrition Losses

12.0 Supply

12.1 General

12.2 The Supply Line

12.3 Out-of-Supply Effects

13.0 Victory

13.1 How to Win

13.2 Victory Points

13.3 Bidding

14.0 Optional Rules


Wilderness War


Strategic Game of the French & Indian War

Designed by Volko Ruhnke

3rd Edition


©2006 Rodger B. MacGowan

Wilderness War

© 2010 GMT Games, LLC


WILDERNESS WAR is a two-player game based on the French

and Indian War—the climactic struggle between Britain and

France for control of North America. One player is the British

and the other is the French.

3RD EDITION RULES: This rulebook folds the “Advanced

Rules” of previous editions into its main body and includes Op-

tional Rules previously available only on line. Other minor edits

and clarifications made for the 2nd or 3rd editions are indicated

with a ~ symbol. No other rules have been changed.


• One 22” x 34” mounted map

• Two counter sheets

• 24 leader stands

• Two player reference cards

• 70 strategy cards

• Two six-sided dice

• One playbook

• This rulebook

If there are any components damaged or missing, please contact

us at:

GMT Games

P.O. Box 1308

Hanford, CA 93232-1308

If you have any questions about the rules, we’ll be glad to answer

them if you send them to the address above with a self-addressed,

stamped envelope. For faster response, we’re on the Internet at

www.gmtgames.com and on WILDERNESS WAR discussion

forums at www.consimworld.com and www.boardgamegeek.

com—or send email to rwinslow@gmtgames.com or vruhnke@



Cultivated Spaces and Departments: All cultivated spaces,

except the holding boxes of Louisbourg and Halifax, are in

one of three Departments. The spaces within the St. Lawrence

Department, plus Louisbourg, are “originally controlled” by

and “originally friendly” to the French. The spaces within the

Northern and Southern Departments, plus Halifax, are “originally

controlled” by and “originally friendly” to the British. A space

that is “originally friendly” to one side is “originally enemy” to

the other.

Fortifications: “Fortifications” include fortresses, completed

forts and stockades. Fortresses are marked on the map and cannot

be built or destroyed; forts and stockades have markers. Forts

under construction (pickaxe counters) do not count as fortifica-

tions until completed.

Fortresses: Friendly control of a fortress (or fortress/port) space

requires that it be unbesieged, free of enemy units, and—if origi-

nally enemy-occupied by at least one friendly unit or “Amphib”


HISTORICAL NOTE: Hostile population centers had to be


Settlements: Indian settlement spaces are marked with colored

borders that correspond to Indian unit counters and Event card

symbols. There is one settlement for each tribe except the

Cherokee, whose settlement is off the map.

Connections: Spaces are connected by either water (river or lake

shore) or land-only connections. Either connection can be used

to move from space to space, retreat, and so on.

Important: Water connections are assumed to have land

connections as well and can be used for either land or boat


Arrows: The arrows leaving Halifax and Louisbourg are for

British Amphibious Landings only. All four arrows leaving Pays

d’en Haut (the upper Great Lakes) can be used for either land or

boat movement, but only in the direction marked. Spaces with

arrows between them are NOT “adjacent” for retreat or any

purpose not listed here.

Holding Boxes: Most leaders have holding boxes, where units

and other leaders stacked in the same space may be placed for

ease of play.

Stacking: The only stacking limit is that no more than four units

may be INSIDE a fort when an enemy enters a space with a fort.

Stacking affects various game aspects such as Attrition, Small

Pox, and whether a Battle results in a victory point award. Players

may always inspect the contents of enemy unit stacks.


3.1 Units

There are three main types—Drilled Troops, Auxiliaries, and

Militia—each with special abilities and restrictions. In general,

Drilled Troops (square counters) are best in concentrated opera-

tions against fortifications. Militia (also square) defend cultivated

areas (the square spaces on the map). Auxiliaries (round counters)

are best in dispersed operations in the wilderness (the round

spaces on the map).

Units are rated for combat strength and movement. All units

have two steps—full strength on the front, reduced strength on

the back (boxed in white).

Full Strength

Reduced Strength


Reduced Strength

Movement Allowance

Unit Type (shape: square = drilled troops)

Unit I.D.

Game of the French & Indian War

© 2010 GMT Games, LLC

3.11 Drilled Troops include:

Regulars—Professionally trained infantry, mostly

from Europe, accompanied by artillery, engineers,

and so forth (all 4-4 and 3-4 units plus the French

1-4 Marine Detachments).

Provincials—Regiments raised by British colonies

in emulation of European Regulars.

Light Infantry—Professionally trained British

troops selected, equipped, and conditioned for

flanking and advance guard duty. They emphasize

marksmanship and use of terrain but commonly

operate as an extension of an European army

rather than in the more independent style of North American


3.12 Militias include:

British Colonial and French Canadian Mili-

tia—Local inhabitants organized temporarily for

frontier or territorial defence and given minimal

training and equipment.

3.13 Auxiliaries include:

Indians—North American Indian warriors al-

lied to the European combatants for their tribe’s

strategic advantage, out of personal loyalty or

antagonism, or for plunder. They excelled at wil-

derness fighting, but were hesitant to participate

in prolonged campaigns.

Coureurs des bois—”Runners of the Woods,”

French irregulars recruited from trappers and

other French Canadian frontiersmen, and adept

at Indian-style wilderness fighting.

Rangers—The British equivalent of Coureurs

des bois, recruited most famously by Robert

Rogers of New Hampshire.

3.2 Leaders

Leaders are used to command units. Leaders are rated for:

• Initiative—how easy it is to Activate them (1 = easiest).

• Command—how many units they can command for move-

ment (the force activation limit). This rating also serves to

denote rank—subordinate leaders must have the same or lower

Command rating as the leader to which they are subordinate


• Tactics—their talent for combat, siege, and raiding.

~ PLAY NOTE: This edition of the game includes

both stand-up and square pieces for each leader.

We recommend using the stand-up pieces for com-

manders of forces [5.34] and the square pieces for

subordinates or leaders without units.

3.3 Markers

Markers are included for fortifications, Indian alliances, raided

spaces, game record tracks, and the effects of various Events.

Their use is explained in the applicable rules or on Event



See the scenarios in the PLAYBOOK for game length and setup

information. WILDERNESS WAR is played in a series of hands of

cards, each of which constitutes a season. Two hands (represent-

ing an “Early Season” and a “Late Season”) plus some year-end

activity constitute a year. Play follows this order:

A. Early Season

A.1 Deal Cards. Deal each player cards as specified in the sce-

nario set up. Events during the game can change the number of

cards players receive.

A.2 Action Phases. Beginning with the French, players alternate

taking Action Phases. Each Action Phase consists of playing a

card to activate leaders and units, build fortifications, or intro-

duce an Event. Continue until both players have played all their


Commands Iroquois/Mohawk for free

British Commander-in-Chief Band

(maximum of 2 on map)

Scenario Limit







square leader

Wilderness War

© 2010 GMT Games, LLC

Exception: When a player has one card left, he may announce that

he will pass and hold his card. The held card, if applicable, may

be played as an Event during an enemy Action Phase [5.5.6] or

held until the following season. If held until the following season,

the player must play ALL his cards that season. (Place a “Card

Held” marker on the Year track as a reminder.) ~ A player’s held

card counts against next turn’s hand size.

If a player has expended all his cards—or held his last card—

while his opponent has two or more remaining, the opponent

plays his cards one after another until finished.

B. Late Season

B.1 Deal Cards. Same as Early Season.

B.2 Action Phases. Same as Early Season.

B.3 Indians & Leaders Go Home. Any Indian units NOT in

friendly fortification spaces Go Home [10.4]. Also, any leaders

in wilderness or mountain without troops or fortifications are

placed in the nearest friendly fortification.

B.4 Remove Raided Markers. Award half a victory point for

each “Raided” marker on the map to the side that placed it,

rounding totals up [10.3.1 and 13.2.2], then remove all Raided

markers from the map.

B.5 Winter Attrition. Units in stacks meeting certain conditions

lose steps [11.0].

B.6 Victory Check. Check to see if the game has ended because

victory conditions were met [13.1] or the last year of the scenario

has been played. Otherwise, begin another year.


5.1 General

The cards are the “engine” that drives a game of WILDERNESS

WAR. The players initiate movement, combat, construction, and

a variety of special events through the play of cards.

5.11 All cards are usable by both players for activation of leaders

and units or for construction.

5.12 Red symbol cards are usable as Events only by the British,

while blue cards are Events used by the French. A card with a red

and blue symbol is usable as an Event by either player.

5.13 Events with brown backgrounds around their name are play-

able as response cards during the middle of an Action Phase.

5.2 Card Deck

5.21 Both players are dealt cards from a single, facedown draw

pile. The scenario instructions state how many cards players


5.22 As cards are played, they are placed into a faceup discard

pile. Certain Events allow a player to draw a card from the discard

pile into his hand.

5.23 If a card which says “REMOVE” is played AS AN EVENT

(only), it is removed from the game rather than added to the

discard pile.

5.24 Players may inspect the number of cards left in the draw

pile, the number of cards in players’ hands, and which cards have

been discarded or removed from play.

5.25 If the draw pile runs out when more

cards are needed for the deal, or at the end of

any season in which the Surrender! card has

been played—whether or not for the Event

(and even if a player was forced to discard

it)—then reshuffle the discard pile and any

remaining undealt cards together.

PLAY NOTE: Upon playing the Surrender! card, place it face

up on the draw pile to serve as a reminder that the deck needs

to be reshuffled.

~ CLARIFICATION: If Surrender! hasn’t been played,

and there aren’t enough cards in the Draw Pile to refresh both

player’s hands, deal out the remaining cards in the Draw pile.

Then reshuffle the Discard Pile and deal enough cards to fill

both hands.

5.26 Card Options. During each Action Phase, the active player

plays a card and chooses one use—EITHER “activating” lead-

ers and/or units [5.3], OR carrying out construction of forts or

stockades [5.4], OR causing the card’s Event to occur [5.5].

Activation Value (#)

of Card

Event Color Symbol

This card has a red and blue

symbol and is usable as an

Event by either player.

Response Card

Brown Coloring

Event Text

Game of the French & Indian War

© 2010 GMT Games, LLC

5.3 Activation

5.31 Either side can use any card (regardless of colored symbol)

to activate leaders or units. Only activated leaders or units may

move, initiate combat, carry out sieges, or Raid. An individual

unit or leader may only be activated once per Action Phase.

5.32 Each card can be used to activate:

• Individual Auxiliary units and/or leaders moving alone totaling

up to the card’s number value. Indian units each count as only

HALF a unit toward this total, OR

• One Drilled Troops unit, regardless of the card’s number value,


• One force [5.3.4] under a leader with an Initiative rating equal

to or lower than the number value of the card.

EXAMPLES: The French player could use a 3-value card to

activate two Indian units plus one Coureurs unit plus any one

leader moving alone. A force led by a “1” leader could be acti-

vated with any value card. A force led by a “2” leader may only

be activated with a “2” or “3” card; and by a “3” leader only

activates with a “3” card.

5.33 Activating Individually. Units and leaders activating alone

can be anywhere on the map. When several units are activated

individually, the player designates all that will be activated (we

suggest tilting the counters), then the player completes the move-

ment, combat, and Raiding for each before beginning with the

next. Movement order need not be predesignated.

5.34 Activating a Force. A leader may “command” (activate as

a force to move together) units stacked with him up to his Com-

mand rating, PLUS any subordinate leaders, ALONG WITH

units up to the Command ratings of each of those subordinate

leaders. Any leader in a space may be chosen to command, but

only leaders with the same or lower Command rating may be


Definition: A “force” is any group of units and leaders subor-

dinate to a particular leader (a leader MUST be present). Force

activation limits must be observed for Movement [6.0], Intercept

[6.7], and Avoid Battle [6.8]. ~ Such limits do not affect Battles

[7.0], Sieges [8.2], Assaults [9.0] or Raids [10.0].

EXAMPLE: A force under Murray (1-5-0) that includes Webb (3-

5-0) and Bradstreet (1-4-1) as subordinates could move with up

to 14 units, all activated together with either a 1, 2 or 3 card.

PLAY NOTE: The Campaign event activates two leaders and their

forces, if any (the leaders do not need to have units to activate).

5.35 Co-Existence. Commanding and subordinate leaders and

their force composition need only be defined for the duration of

an activation, or at the instant of defending in a Battle, Avoiding

Battle [6.8], Intercepting [6.7], and so on. Otherwise, numerous

leaders and units can coexist in a space without defining subor-

dinates or forces.

5.36 Sequence of Actions. Each active force or individually-

activated unit or leader conducts any of the following actions

that apply in the following order:

• Movement [6.0]

• Battle [7.0]

• Raid [10.0]

Alternatively, an activated force that does not move may Siege

[8.2] and/or Assault [9.0] a fort or fortress.

~ Important: A unit or leader may not be activated if it previ-

ously participated in combat (per 8.251) or assault (per 9.12) in

the current Action Phase.

5.4 Construction

A player may play any card to build EITHER stockades OR

forts (not both).

Exception: A player may NOT carry out construction with two

card plays in a row, even after beginning a new season.

5.41 Stockades. Place stockade markers (one per

space) totaling up to the number value of the card.

Stockades may be placed in any spaces occupied by

friendly supplied [12.0] Drilled Troops units, or in

any cultivated spaces that were originally friendly to the placing

player (no friendly units need be present). They may not be placed

in spaces containing enemy units or fortifications.

5.42 Forts. Construct forts in spaces occupied by

friendly supplied [12.0] Drilled Troops units. Forts

Under Construction counters (pickaxe symbol) may

be placed, and previously-placed Pickaxes may be

flipped to their completed side, up to the value of the card be-

ing used.

EXAMPLE: A player could use a 3-value card to flip one Fort

Under Construction marker to become a completed fort and to

place two new Pickaxe markers on other spaces. He could NOT

place both stockade and fort markers with the same card, nor

could he use a 2 or 3 card to place a Fort Under Construction

marker and complete it in the same Action Phase.

5.43 One Per Space. No space may have more than a single

completed fortification. Construction may not occur in a siege

space. Stockades and forts may not be built in fortress spaces.

Stockades may not be built in spaces with completed forts. If a

fort is completed in a space with a stockade, remove the stockade.

Fortresses may never be built or removed.

5.44 Forts Under Construction. These provide no

benefits to the owner, nor any hindrance nor Victory

Points to the enemy—in effect, they do not exist

until completed.

5.45 Enemy Destruction/Capture. A stockade is Destroyed

(removed) if enemy Drilled Troops units win a Battle in the

space. The stockade is Captured intact (flipped over to the new

owning side) if enemy Drilled Troops units enter an otherwise

unoccupied stockade space. In either case award 1 VP. A Fort

Under Construction is removed whenever a space is solely oc-

cupied by enemy Drilled Troops units. See Sieges [8.2] for how

Wilderness War

© 2010 GMT Games, LLC

fortresses and completed forts are captured. Stockades also can

be destroyed in Raids [10.31].

5.46 Demolition. At any time during his OWN Action Phase and

at no activation cost, a player may demolish (remove) any of his

own UNBESIEGED forts or stockades anywhere on the map.

Stockades and Forts Under Construction may be demolished

without VP penalty, but demolishing a fort costs 1 VP.

5.5 Events

5.51 If a card is played as an Event, follow the instructions on

the card. Markers are provided for use on the Year track as ap-

propriate reminders of the effects of the following Events:

• Diplomatic Revolution

• William Pitt

• Louisbourg Squadrons/No Amphib

• Louisbourg Squadrons/No French Naval

• Quiberon

• British/French Blockhouses

• Cherokees/Cherokee Uprising

5.52 Reinforcements and Replacements. When an Event calls

for the placement of units, they must come from counters which

are not currently in play. The counters provided in the game are

a limit on the entry of units.

PLAY NOTE: Due to the nature of the reinforcement Events and

the counter mix, eliminated Regulars and Coureurs units are

removed permanently from the game, while Provincials, Light

Infantry, Militia, Indians and Rangers units may re-enter the

game by play of the appropriate card.

5.521 Units always enter at full strength.

5.522 Units may NEVER enter the game at a space occupied by

enemy units or fortifications, including besieged spaces [8.2]. If

no suitable entry space is available when an Event is played, the

reinforcements are not received.

5.523 Certain Events allow reduced-strength units to be restored

(flipped back) to their full-strength sides. Units may NOT be

restored from reduced strength to full strength while Besieged

[8.22] or if they are Out-of-Supply Drilled Troops [12.3].

5.53 Indian Alliances. Cards 23 through

30 may be played as Events to secure

Indian allies, either entering them as

new units or restoring reduced units

already on the map.

5.531 Indian unit counters, settlements

on the map, and related Event cards are

color-coded for ease of play:

• Northern Indians (pro-French, blue

stripe): Abenaki, Algonquin, Caugh-

nawaga and Mississauga.

• Western Indians (pro-French, orange stripe): Delaware,

Mingo and Shawnee.

• Pays d’en Haut Indians (pro-French, half orange and half

blue stripe): Huron, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Potawatomi. These

can be placed with either the Northern or Western Alliance


• Iroquois (neutral, gray stripes): Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga,

Tuscarora and Oneida.

• Mohawks (pro-British, red stripes).

• Cherokee (pro-British, green stripes).

5.532 Players should mark settle-

ments with Allied markers while the

corresponding Indian units are on the

map, as reminders of where units are to

“Go Home” and of allied settlements’

vulnerability to enemy Raids. If all Indian units from a settlement

are eliminated, immediately remove the Allied marker—that

settlement is no longer a Raid target.

PLAY NOTE: This means that if a would-be Raider eliminates

the last step of Indians from a wilderness settlement in a Battle

at that settlement, no Raid occurs.

Important: Settlements—allied or not—are no hindrance to

enemy movement.

5.533 The game has (gray) counters to represent Iroquois tribes

allied to either the French or the British. An Iroquois unit may

not be entered if the corresponding enemy Iroquois counter of

the same name is already on the map.

5.534 The only British leader who can command Mohawk or

Iroquois units is Johnson, and he commands any number of

them for free (they do not count against his command rating).

French leaders command Indians normally and British leaders

command Cherokee normally. (Any Indians may be activated


EXAMPLE: Johnson (1-3-1) could command a force of three

Regulars units (his Command rating), both Mohawk units and

all five British Iroquois units.

HISTORICAL NOTE: William Johnson, Superintendent of

Northern Indian Affairs and “Colonel of the Six Nations,” was

Britain’s principal diplomatic link to the Iroquois, especially

the Mohawk.

Game of the French & Indian War

© 2010 GMT Games, LLC

5.54 British Colonial Politics. The

Colonial Politics event moves the

position of the marker on the Provincial

Assemblies Track—which restricts the

number of British Provincial units that

may be in play, by Department. When

the French play Colonial Politics, the

British player must immediately select

Provincial units in excess of the limits

stated on the Provincial Assemblies

Track and eliminate them.

Exception: In the unlikely occurrence that more than the allowed

number of Provincial units are besieged [8.2], they are exempt

from this restriction until the next French play of Colonial


5.55 British Leader Reinforcements: When a British Event calls

for leader placement, the British player draws the appropriate

number of leaders randomly from a pool, then chooses where

they enter. The British may NOT have more than two leaders

with Command ratings of “7” in play. Whenever a third is chosen

from the pool, the British player must immediately choose and

remove from the game one of the other two already on the map.

If both on-map “7” leaders are besieged, return the third to the

pool (without substitution).

HISTORICAL NOTE: The British suffered command disruptions

until a satisfactory commander-in-chief for North America was


5.56 Response Events. Events with a BROWN background

around the name (only) may be played during friendly or enemy

movement or other unit activity. Their play does not replace the

normal card play during the Action Phase.

EXAMPLE: An active player could play the Surrender! event im-

mediately upon fulfilling the requirements for making a siege roll,

thereby removing the need for a successful Siege and Assault.


6.1 General

Active forces, individual units, or individual leaders move in

one of three ways, which may not be combined during the same


• Land movement is along any land (brown) or river/lake (blue)


• Boat movement is faster, but is mostly restricted to river/lake


• Naval movement is from port to port.

A force may NOT “pick up” additional units or leaders as it

moves, but MAY drop off subordinate units or leaders, which

move no further that Action Phase.

6.2 Land Movement

Land movement is conducted by entering adjacent spaces up to

the movement allowance of the moving unit/force, along any

combination of land AND/OR river/lake connections.

• Drilled Troops that pass through a wilderness space stop in

the NEXT space—UNLESS moving with Auxiliaries.

• Auxiliaries that pass through an enemy cultivated space stop

in the NEXT space—UNLESS moving with Drilled Troops.

• All units/leaders must stop upon entering a mountain space.

Exception: Spaces that have friendly fortifications do not count

for the above three restrictions. For example, a Regulars unit

may pass through four wilderness and mountain spaces if each

space has a friendly stockade or fort.

HISTORICAL NOTE: Auxiliaries help Drilled Troops find their

way in the wilderness. Auxiliaries without Drilled Troops move

more cautiously amidst hostile populations.

6.21 Leaders moving alone have a movement allowance of 6.

6.22 A force moves at the rate of its slowest unit. If slower units

are dropped off, faster units may continue moving up to their

higher movement rate.

PLAY NOTE: French play of a Foul Weather event precedes any

British play of George Croghan.

6.3 Boat Movement

Boat Movement is conducted by moving up to nine spaces (re-

gardless of terrain) using only river/lake connections.

Exception: A force or unit moving by boat may pass over ONE

land connection during its activation if each end is either an

originally-friendly cultivated space or a friendly fortification

(even if besieged, though the force or unit would have to stop

upon entering it).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Much of the movement of men and supplies

in the war was via bateau (a flat-bottomed boat holding 20 men)

or canoe. At several stretches between bodies of water, goods

and often the boats themselves had to be hauled along portage

roads or paths—called “carrying places” or “carries”—such as

the 14-mile carry between the Hudson River and Lake George,

which by 1757 was protected by British forts at either end.

6.4 Naval Movement

Naval Movement is conducted by moving directly from one

friendly-controlled port to another. The French may naval move

only between Québec and Louisbourg.

6.41 A FORCE may only naval move if activated with a 3-value

card. (All 3-value cards are marked with an anchor to show that

they enable an entire force to naval move.)

6.42 Units or leaders activated INDIVIDUALLY may naval

move with any card.

Wilderness War

© 2010 GMT Games, LLC

6.43 British Amphibious Landings.

The British may use a special kind of

naval movement only along the “Am-

phibious” arrows on the map.

6.431 To make an Amphibious move,

in addition to the card used to activate

movement, the British player must play

an Amphibious Landing card (which has

an Event name on a brown background).

The British must control the port of

departure, but not the destination space. Place an

“Amphib” marker in the destination space. If that

space ever becomes solely occupied by French

units that include Drilled Troops ~ or an unbesieged

French fortification, remove the Amphib marker.

PLAY NOTE: Thus, the Amphibious arrows mean that the British

can launch Amphibious Landings from Halifax (only) against

Louisbourg, or from Louisbourg (once the fortress is captured)

to Baie-St-Paul, Île d’Orléans or Rivière-Ouelle. The arrows do

not affect normal naval movement.

Important: If the French player wishes to block a British naval

movement with a Foul Weather event, he plays it AFTER the

British player plays a card for activation but BEFORE play of

Amphibious Landing.

6.432 An “Amphib” marker has the following effects:

• It allows normal British naval movement (not Amphibious

Landings) between the Amphib space and any British-con-

trolled port—even if a Siege is underway in the Amphib


• It maintains British control of Louisbourg (no British unit need

be present).

• It allows British retreat from the Amphib space directly to any

British-controlled port.

• It allows British placement of reinforcements as if the space

were a port.

~ Clarification: Reinforcements CANNOT be placed on an

Amphib Marker in a besieged space [8.22].

~ It allows British Avoid Battle from the Amphib space di-

rectly to any British controlled port, not just an adjacent space


6.5 Moving Into Enemy-Occupied Spaces

6.51 A unit or force using any kind of movement to enter a space

occupied by unbesieged enemy units or fortifications must stop

and take the appropriate action as listed below:

• If the space has enemy units, the moving unit or force must at-

tack (the enemy units defend). Attackers may continue moving

after an Overrun Battle [7.82], or if all defenders Avoid Battle


• If the space has an enemy fort or fortress while no

enemy units defend outside [8.1], place a “Siege

0” marker on the fortification.

• If the space has an unoccupied enemy stockade and the moving

unit or force includes Drilled Troops, the stockade is captured

intact (flip the stockade marker, award 1 VP).

• If the space has an unoccupied enemy stockade and the moving

unit or force includes Auxiliaries without Drilled Troops, then

the Auxiliaries must Raid [10.0].

6.52 Only a unit or force that includes Drilled Troops may enter

an unbesieged enemy fort or fortress space.

6.53 Leaders moving alone cannot enter an enemy-occupied

space. If a leader is ever without friendly units or fortifications

in an enemy-occupied space, he must retreat or be eliminated


6.54 Leaders alone, Forts Under Construction, and settlements

are no hindrance to movement.

6.6 Infiltration

~ A lone Auxiliary unit (either activated individually or com-

manded by a leader and moving without any other units) may

move by land or boat THROUGH one or more spaces occupied

by enemy units or unbesieged enemy fortifications.

PLAY NOTE: Infiltration is the only way that Auxiliaries mov-

ing without Drilled Troops may enter unbesieged enemy fort or

fortress spaces.

Example: Virginia units are in Woodstock and Augusta, and

a Shawnee unit is in Allegheny South. The Shawnee moves

into Woodstock, attempting to Infiltrate to Culpeper. The

Virginia unit in Woodstock attempts to Intercept the Shawnee

in Woodstock and fails on a roll of 2. The Shawnee enters

Culpeper, where the Virginia unit in Augusta may attempt

Interception, but the unit in Woodstock may not because the

Shawnee is moving from the Woodstock space.

Game of the French & Indian War

© 2010 GMT Games, LLC

~ 6.61 A unit that attempts to Infiltrate must have sufficient

movement allowance (or remainder of the nine spaces by boat),

assuming successful Infiltration, to reach a space that it may enter

without using Infiltration.

6.62 Regardless of terrain and unit types, an Infiltrating unit is

subject to Interception [6.7] by enemy units within the same


6.63 An Infiltrating unit (along with any accompanying leaders)

is eliminated if it is forced back (either by retreat from Battle or

by the Lake Schooner event) into an enemy-occupied space.

6.64 An Infiltrating unit may end its movement or keep moving

(and may conduct additional Infiltrations). If it ends movement

in an enemy-occupied space, it causes a battle [6.51].

6.7 Interception

6.71 General. Units may attempt to Intercept enemy units that are

using land, boat, or naval movement (not Retreating, Intercepting,

or Avoiding Battle) to enter spaces adjacent to them. Units being

Infiltrated also may try to Intercept within their space. For each

Interception attempt, first designate which leaders and units will

make the attempt. Then roll one die and add the Tactics rating

of the Intercepting commander, if any, to the roll. Interception

succeeds on a modified die roll of 4 or higher.

~ If successful, place the Intercepting force or unit into the

space with the Intercepted enemy—who must immediately

attack in a Battle (i.e., the activated, moving unit or force

will be the attacker, the Intercepting unit or force will be the

defender.) All defenders not inside a fort or fortress must

participate [7.1].

• If the Interception attempt fails, the moving units may continue


6.711 If units Intercept into a space where their side has an unoc-

cupied stockade, the stockade is not captured but remains in place

and benefits them in the ensuing Battle [an exception to 6.51].

6.712 If an Auxiliary unit is Intercepted while attempting to In-

filtrate an enemy fort or fortess space, it attacks the Intercepting

units in a normal Battle outside the fortification, but the Infiltrator

(only) must retreat—regardless who wins.

~ Clarification: First, attempt Interception. Then, units that

started in the fort/fortress space may retreat inside (Intercepting

units must fight).

6.72 Who May Interecept. For each space a moving enemy

force or unit enters, you may attempt Interception with any ONE

unbesieged force or individual unit that is adjacent or in the same

space. Leaders may not Intercept alone. An intercepting force

need not include all units in a space, and it may not exceed the

force activation limits of the commanding leader and any sub-

ordinate leaders [5.34].

6.721 A lone Auxiliary unit (with or without leaders) entering

a wilderness or mountain space may be Intercepted ONLY by a

lone enemy Auxiliary unit (with or without leaders).

Exception: This restriction does NOT apply to Interception

against Infiltrators within the same space [6.62].

6.722 Units entering a space already occupied by their side’s

unbesieged units (not leaders alone) or fortifications may NOT

be Intercepted.

6.723 Leaders moving alone can NOT be Intercepted.

~ 6.724 Units may not Intercept an enemy leaving their own


EXAMPLE: If Interception against a unit attempting to Infiltrate

[6.62] fails, or if no attempt is made, any Infiltrated units may

not attempt Interception against the Infiltrating unit in the next

space it enters. If all besieging units leave a space, the formerly

besieged units may not Intercept in the first space entered.

EXAMPLE: Ossipee and Concord each contain two British

Provincial units and Ossipee also contains a Ranger. A French

Coureurs unit is in White Mountains North and intends to

move to Casco Bay, then Portsmouth, then Gloucester in

order to Raid. Only the Rangers can attempt to Intercept the

Coureurs in Casco Bay, which is wilderness, succeeding on a

roll of 4-6. If they fail and the Coureurs enter Portsmouth—a

cultivated space—one (only) of the two Provincials in Con-

cord could attempt to Intercept the Coureurs in Portsmouth.

If Concord also contained the leader Bradstreet, he and

both Provincials could attempt to Intercept into Portsmouth

together, succeeding (with a +1 for Bradstreet) on a 3 or


Wilderness War


© 2010 GMT Games, LLC

6.8 Avoiding Battle

Any ONE unbesieged force or individual unit in a space about

to be attacked may attempt instead to Avoid Battle. An Avoid-

ing force need not include all units in a space, and it may not

exceed the force activation limits of the commanding leader and

any subordinate leaders [5.34]. Roll a die and add the Tactics

rating of the Avoiding commander, if any. On a modified roll

of 4 or higher, the Avoiding force or unit is placed in a single

adjacent space.

Exception: In wilderness or mountain spaces, an Auxiliary unit

or a force whose units include only Auxiliaries may automatically

Avoid attackers who have no auxiliaries.

6.81 The adjacent space to which the avoiding units move may

not be the one from which the attacker entered, nor may it contain

unbesieged enemy fortifications or units.

~ 6.811 British units in an Amphib space may Avoid Battle di-

rectly to any British-controlled port [6.432].

6.82 If all defending units successfully Avoid, the active force

or unit may continue moving. If the active force/unit again

moves into the defenders’ space, they may again attempt to

Avoid Battle.

Exception: If the space has an enemy fortification, the active units

must stop. If it is a fort or fortress, place a “Siege 0” marker. If

it is a Stockade, Drilled Troops capture it—flip it and award 1

VP—while Auxiliaries without Drilled Troops must Raid.

6.83 A force or unit can Avoid out of a fort or fortress space

while other units stay inside [8.1]. But if Avoidance fails, the

Avoiding group must defend in a Battle while the group inside

the fortification remains inside.

~ Clarification: Declaration of “inside” or “outside” comes

before “Avoid Battle” die roll is made.

6.84 Intercepted and Intercepting units are not allowed to Avoid

Battle. Intercepting units which fail their Interception attempt

also may not Avoid Battle if later attacked during the same

enemy move.

6.85 A player may not Avoid Battle from a space with some units

and attempt to Intercept into it with others (whether successful

or not) during the same enemy move—he must chose one or

the other.


7.1 General

A Battle occurs when an active force or unit (“the attackers”)

moves into a space containing enemy units (“defenders”). With

the exception of units and/or leaders inside a fort or fortress [8.1],

Battle in such a space is mandatory and all other units present

must participate.

Important: “Battles” are distinct from “Assaults,” which are

combat between besieging and besieged units [9.0].

7.2 Resolving Battles

Battles are resolved with the following procedure:

A. Determine if any Militia will participate [7.3].

B. The attacker and then the defender, if they wish, play one or

more Events to influence the combat.

C. Each side totals its combat factors to determine their column

on the Combat Results Table (CRT), applies die roll modifiers

(DRMs) or other modifications [7.5], and rolls a die.

D. Unit step and leader losses, if any, are inflicted according to

the results read from the CRT.

E. A winner is determined [7.8] and VPs awarded.

F. Militia return to their box and the loser retreats.

7.3 Militia

When any Battle is to occur in an originally-friendly CULTI-

VATED space (including outside a fort or fortress), any or all

Militia units in the box corresponding to that Department may

participate. The owning player simply places them in the Battle

space. Because Louisbourg is not part of any Department, Militia

may never deploy there.

Exception: Militia may not deploy on the map for Battle if the

enemy has placed any “Raided” markers within that Department

that year (but, see 10.2).

7.4 Events Influencing the Combat

The attacker must play all Event cards he wishes to use for that

Battle before the defender does.

EXAMPLE: After the attacker’s option to play cards, the defender

plays a Fieldworks card and places a Fieldworks marker. The

attacker is also holding a Fieldworks card, but may not play it

to remove the marker for this Battle, because the attacker always

plays all his cards first.

7.5 DRMs and Column Shifts

The Combat Results Table (CRT) summarizes the following die

roll modifiers (DRMs) and other modificatons for leaders, unit

types in certain terrain, stockades, and Event cards.

~ 7.51 For Battles, Sieges [8.231], Assaults [9.0], and Raids

[10.0], the active side adds the activated leader’s Tactics Rating,

and the non-active side uses the Tactics rating of any one leader

with the highest Command rating in the space. For Intercepting

[6.7] or Avoiding Battle [6.8], use the commander of the force

making the attempt. For “dropped off” Raids [10.13], use any

leader in the space that could command the force. Force activa-

tion limits [5.34] do not apply to combat.

7.52 If only one side in a Battle (not Assault) in wilderness or

mountain terrain has Auxiliaries or Light Infantry, the other side

suffers a –1 DRM.

7.53 If only one side in a Battle (not Assault) in cultivated terrain

has Regulars, the other side suffers a –1.

Game of the French & Indian War


© 2010 GMT Games, LLC

7.54 If attacking in an Amphibious Landing and/or

against defenders in a stockade space, the attacker

suffers a –1 for each that applies.

7.55 If attacking defenders under a Fieldworks

marker (regardless of when the marker was placed

or what type of units are defending), the attacker

shifts one column to the left. ~ One Fieldworks

marker per space.

7.56 If only one side in a Battle (not Assault) in wilderness

or mountain played an Ambush! event, its combat strength is

doubled (before any column shift) and it fires first. The other side

takes losses first, then fires with its surviving combat strength.

7.6 Step Losses

Each side’s fire on the CRT inflicts a number of step losses.

Unless an Ambush! event has been played, results are simultane-

ous. However, the attacker must assign his step losses (flip and

eliminate units) before the defender assigns his.

7.61 All units at full strength have two “steps.” A full strength

unit that loses one step flips over. A reduced strength unit (already

“flipped”) that loses one step is eliminated. When eliminated,

the Regulars and Coureurs units are removed permanently from

the game. However, eliminated Provincials, Light Infantry,

Indians, Militia and Rangers may re-enter the game by play of

the appropriate card.

~ 7.62 The owner chooses which specific units take losses, but

at least half (rounded up) of the step losses must be fulfilled

from a Drilled Troops unit, if available. This takes precedence

over 7.63.

~ EXAMPLE: If five losses are suffered in a Battle, at least three

of the steps lost must be from Drilled Troops units if there are at

least three steps of Drilled Troops units in the stack.

~ 7.63 Except as required to meet the Drilled Troops loss re-

quirement above, a player may not assign overall losses from a

battle such that some units are eliminated while others remain

at full strength.

~ EXAMPLE: Three Indian units and one Light Infantry unit (at

full strength) suffer a 3-step loss in a Battle. The Light Infantry

is eliminated and one step loss comes from any Indian unit (7.62

takes precedence over 7.63).

7.64 Leaders are never removed due to step losses. If all units

are eliminated in a Battle, any leaders retreat [7.9].

7.7 Leader Losses

Either side’s leaders may be killed (removed from the game). If

you roll a natural “1” or “6” (before DRMs) AND cause at least

one step loss, the opposing player must roll a die for EACH of

his leaders involved in the Battle. A roll of “1” for any leader

kills him.

7.8 Winner/Loser

If only one side has surviving units, it wins. Otherwise, the side

that caused the higher number of step losses wins. The defender

wins a tie. ~ The side that caused most step losses on the CRT

wins if both eliminated. Defenders still win ties.

7.81 The winner of the Battle is awarded 1 VP if the losing side

included at least one Regular unit or more than four units of

any kind.

7.82 Overrun. If there are no defending fortifications and the

attacker eliminated all enemy units without suffering any step

losses himself, he may continue moving as if the space had been


7.9 Retreat

7.91 In step F of the Battle, return any surviving Militia to their

box (reduced units remain reduced). Then retreat the losing lead-

ers and units to one or more spaces adjacent to the Battle space

(defenders may split up).

Exceptions: Units defending outside a fort or fortress may retreat

inside [8.1]. British retreating from an “Amphib” space may be

placed in any British-controlled ports [6.432] within the usual

requirements [7.92].

7.92 Any retreating units or leaders that cannot meet the follow-

ing requirements are eliminated:

• The French may never retreat via naval movement (and thus

may not retreat from Louisbourg). The British may do so from

an “Amphib” space [6.432].

• Losers may not retreat to a space with unbesieged enemy units

or fortifications.

• Defenders may not retreat into the space from which the enemy


• Attackers must retreat back into the space from which they


• Drilled Troops must retreat to either a cultivated space or a

friendly fortification.

PLAY NOTE: This means that it can be very risky, for example,

to move with Drilled Troops in the midst of wilderness without

securing a line of retreat via stockades or forts.

EXAMPLE: A defending stack containing a Drilled Troops unit,

an Auxiliary unit and a leader is forced to retreat. The defenders

have several options. All could retreat together to a cultivated

or fortification space. The Drilled Troops could retreat to such a

space, while the Auxiliaries retreat to a wilderness or mountain

space, and the leader could accompany either unit or retreat

into a third space alone.

~ NOTE: See 6.53 for leaders alone in a space.

Wilderness War


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8.1 Battles Outside Forts or Fortresses

When units move into a space with both enemy units and an

unbesieged enemy fort or fortress, the defending player must

decide which units and leaders will defend inside and which

outside. Players may designate units “inside” by placing them

under the fort marker or on the fortress symbol directly. Defend-

ers at a stockade may NOT similarly avoid an attack by going

“inside”—instead a Battle results normally with the attacker

suffering a –1 DRM for the stockade.

~ Clarification: If Infiltrating a fort or fortress space [6.6], the

inactive side first attempts any Interception [6.7]. Then, units that

started in the fort/fortress space may retreat inside (Intercepting

units must fight).

~ Clarification: Declaration of “inside” or “outside” comes

before “Avoid Battle” die roll is made.

8.11 No more than four units and any number of leaders may

defend inside a fort. Any number may be inside a fortress.

8.12 If any units defend outside, they fight a Battle without help

from the fortification or any units or leaders inside it.

8.13 If the defenders lose a Battle outside a fort or fortress, they

retreat either into adjacent spaces normally, or some or all may

retreat inside the fortification (up to four units if a fort).

8.2 Sieges

8.21 If friendly units are in a space with an enemy fort or fortress

(not stockade) but no enemy units are outside the fortification,

then the fort or fortress is besieged. Place a “Siege 0” marker

on the space. Any space with a siege marker (0, 1, or 2) on it is

“besieged” (a “siege” space), and any units or leaders inside the

fort or fortress are “besieged” units or leaders.

EXAMPLES: Placement of a Siege 0 marker would occur: a) im-

mediately after defenders lose a Battle outside a friendly fort or

fortress, or b) if all units choose to defend inside, or c) if enemy

units move into an otherwise unoccupied fort or fortress space.

REMINDERS: Only a unit or force that includes Drilled Troops

may enter an enemy fort or fortress space that is not already

besieged [6.51]. Stockades, though included in the term “forti-

fications,” can never be besieged. They provide a DRM in Battle

but are eliminated if the defenders lose the Battle [6.5].

~ 8.22 Siege Spaces. A besieged fortress (or fortress/port) space

is controlled by neither side for the purposes of naval movement,

reinforcements, victory, or requirements for the play of an Event

[Exception: 13.12]. Reinforcements may never be placed in a

siege space, although units outside can be restored to full strength.

Units and leaders which are INSIDE a fortification under Siege

cannot be removed nor restored to full strength by an Event. If

subsequently the Siege is lifted, they can be restored or removed

only by newly-played Events.

Exception: Besieged units CAN lose steps and be removed by

the Small Pox event.

8.23 Resolving a Siege. To capture a fort or fortress, besiegers

must first increase the “siege level” by rolling on the Siege Table.

The siege level begins at “0” and can be increased to either “1”

or “2.”

8.231 To increase the siege level, the besieging stack must begin

an Action Phase in the besieged space (there would already be a

siege marker) and must include supplied [12.0] Drilled Troops

and at least one leader. The besieging player then activates a

leader with the highest command rating in the space (regardless

of how many units or subordinate leaders are present). There is no

movement. Either player may play the Coehorns event. Then the

Active player rolls a die and checks the Siege Table, applying all

applicable modifiers and adjusting the siege marker as indicated.

Possible DRMs (also summarized on the Siege Table):

• Add the Tactics rating of the besieger’s commanding leader.

• Subtract the Tactics rating of the defender’s commanding


• If the besieger played the Coehorns event, add two; if the

defender played the Event, subtract two.

• If the Siege is at Louisbourg, subtract one.

~ Clarification: To roll on the Siege Table, a FORCE (not an

individual leader or unit) must be activated, though force limits

can be ignored. For example, if Loudoun is the highest ranking

leader in a siege space, a “3” card would need to be played to

roll on the Siege Table.

~ Clarification: Surrender! may be played after Coehorns. A

siege roll may enable Surrender! even if the fortification’s siege

level [8.24] has been reached. Surrender! does not prevent the

effects of Massacre!.

8.232 If a besieged space ever becomes vacant of besieging units,

remove the siege marker.

8.24 Assault Possible. If the required siege level has been

reached (“1” for forts, “2” for fortresses), the active force may

IMMEDIATELY Assault [9.0] in that Action Phase. Assault is

not mandatory after siege, but, once declared, must proceed even

if the defender waits until then to play Coehorns. Unoccupied

forts or fortresses still must be Assaulted.

Exception: A captured, originally-enemy fortress that the captor

leaves unoccupied immediately reverts to enemy control, award-

ing the owner 3 VPs.

8.25 Breaking the Siege. Besieged leaders and units may be

activated normally. They may not leave the space, but may attack

the besieging stack in a Battle outside the fortification. Militia

may participate.

8.251 If units move into a space in which the enemy is conducting

a siege, friendly units inside the fort or fortress MAY participate

in the subsequent Battle even though they were not activated.

Game of the French & Indian War


© 2010 GMT Games, LLC

8.252 If the besieged units lose the Battle, they retreat back inside

and remain under siege. Units that entered from an adjacent space

may not retreat inside.


9.1 General

Combat to capture a fort or fortress is called “Assault.” To As-

sault, an active stack may not have moved and the fort or fortress

must have reached the required siege level (1 for a fort, 2 for a


~ 9.11 An Assault may occur immediately after the siege level

is reached (1 for a fort, 2 for a fortress). If the siege level was

reached in a previous Action Phase, the besieging force (it must

include a leader) may be activated to Assault without rolling on

the Siege Table.

~ 9.12 As in all combat, force activation limits are ignored (all

units and leaders participate). If one force activated by a Cam-

paign event enters a space where the second activated force is

besieging, both may be combined for a subsequent Assault, even

though the force that moved would no longer be activated.

9.13 These DRMs and column shifts are applicable to an Assault

(also summarized on the CRT):

• Both sides add the Tactics rating of their commander (high-

est-rated leader)

• Add two to the side that played the Coehorns event that phase

(including a play to influence a siege roll).

• The attacker automatically suffers a one column shift to the


9.14 An Assault works just like a Battle, with the following


• No Militia take part.

• Steps must first be lost by both sides from involved Drilled

Troops (even if some Drilled Troop units would be eliminated

before non-Drilled Troop units are reduced.)

• No retreat occurs.

• No VPs are awarded for the combat itself (but are awarded for

capture of the fort or fortress [9.22].)

9.2 Winner/Loser

The Attacker must cause a HIGHER enemy step loss result to

win an Assault, otherwise the Defender wins. Eliminating all

defending units is NOT sufficient to win: unoccupied forts and

fortresses continued to defend themselves on the 0 column of

the CRT.

9.21 If the defender wins, the Siege continues.

9.22 If the attacker wins, a fortress is captured intact. A fort is

replaced with a Fort Under Construciton marker of the attacker’s

nationality (to represent damage to the captured fort). Units and

leaders defending inside are eliminated. Remove the siege marker

and award 2 VPs for a fort and 3 VPs for a fortress.

REMINDER: You must occupy the captured enemy fortress

with at least one friendly unit or Amphib marker to maintain


10.0 RAIDS

Successful Raids earn VPs, destroy stockades,

eliminate Indian units, and block some Militia

deployments. A “failed” Raid in the game does not

mean that no damage was done—only that it had

no particular political or military impact.

10.1 Targets

Any active Auxiliaries not stacked with Drilled

Troops and ending their activation in any of the

following spaces MUST Raid (roll on the Raid


• An originally enemy cultivated space, OR

• An enemy stockade, OR

• A settlement with corresponding enemy Indian unit(s) CUR-

RENTLY on the map (an enemy “allied” settlement).

~ Clarification: All leaders and auxiliaries in a space Raid

together with one roll.

10.11 Spaces with forts, fortresses, friendly stockades or friendly

Drilled Troops may not be Raided.

10.12 Active units still Raid after fighting a Battle [5.36].

EXAMPLE: An Auxiliary unit may move into an enemy-occupied

stockade space and—if the enemy units lose the resulting Battle

and thus retreat—the Auxiliary must Raid the now unoccupied


~ 10.13 A force may “drop off” Auxiliary units and subordinate

leaders in any spaces through which it passes. The dropped-off

Auxiliary units Raid, using the highest Command leader with

them, after the force that dropped them off has resolved any


10.2 Militia Deployment Against Raids

If a Raid is against a stockade in an enemy CULTIVATED

space, the enemy player MAY place ONE Militia unit from that

Department’s Militia Box into the space. He may do so regard-

less of whether or not Raided markers are present already in that

Department (i.e., the 7.3 exception does not block this kind of

Militia deployment).

~ Exception: Militia may not deploy if the Raiding unit(s) already

fought a Battle in the stockade space that Action Phase.

10.21 If a Militia unit deploys, the Raiding unit(s) must imme-

diately attack it (in the stockade) in a Battle. After the Battle,

surviving Militia returns to its Box.

10.22 If the Raiders win, they carry out the Raid normally.

10.23 If they lose, they retreat normally (they do not Go


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© 2010 GMT Games, LLC

10.3 Resolving a Raid

First, the defending player may play the Blockhouses event.

Then the Raiding player rolls a die on the Raid Table. Use either

the “Stockade/Settlement” or “Cultivated” column, depending

on the space being Raided (for a stockade or currently enemy-

allied settlement in cultivated terrain, use the Stockade/Settle-

ment column), and apply any DRMs (also summarized on the

Raid Table):

• Add the commanding leader’s Tactics rating.

• Add one if any Raiding units are Rangers.

• Subtract one if the Raid is within an enemy Department whose

Militia Box has two or more Militia units in it (reduced or


EXAMPLE: If two or more Militia units (even if reduced or if

participated in a Battle) are in a Department’s Militia Box, apply

a –1 against Raids within their Department. The Militia modify

the Raid from their holding box without deploying to the map.

10.31 Raids result in either Success or Failure and

can result in step losses (owner’s choice) or leader

losses for the Raiders. If successful:

• Place a Raided marker,

• Eliminate any stockade in the space,

• Eliminate all unbesieged Indian units, wherever on the map,

belonging to the tribe whose settlement has been successfully

Raided, and

• Score half a VP during the Remove Raided Markers phase

(total rounded up).

10.32 If a natural “1” is rolled on any Raid—or a natural “6”

is rolled on a Raid against a stockade or enemy-allied settle-

ment—roll another die for each leader involved. A roll of “1”

kills that leader.

10.33 Previously-Raided Spaces. For additional VPs, you may

add Raided markers to spaces that already have them ONLY

for successfully Raiding stockades or currently enemy-allied

settlements—NOT to an empty cultivated space that already

has a Raided marker. Auxiliaries ending a move alone in an

empty cultivated space with a Raided marker still must roll on

the Raid Table and then Go Home—even though Success will

have no effect.

10.4 Going Home

Regardless of the outcome of a Raid, all surviving Raiders im-

mediately redeploy. Indians must redeploy if they are not in a

fortification during the Indians & Leaders Go Home Phase at the

end of each year (4.0 B.3).

10.41 Indians. Pick up and place the Indian unit in its home

settlement space.

10.411 If its settlement is occupied by the enemy, the Raiding

unit is eliminated.

10.412 If the unit is Cherokee, it is eliminated. Exception: See


PLAY NOTE: A non-Cherokee Indian unit that has Gone Home

to its Settlement is still available for activation in a later Action


10.413 An Indian unit that Goes Home may be accompanied by

any leaders or Coureurs des bois units stacked with it.

10.42 Non-Indians: Coureurs des bois, Rangers, and leaders are

immediately placed in the closest friendly, unbesieged fortifica-

tion (owner’s choice).

10.421 “Closest” is determined by counting connected spaces,

regardless of intervening enemy presence or terrain.

10.422 Any Indians stacked with a leader may accompany him

to the closest fortification.

DESIGN NOTE: This means that Raiding Cherokee are elimi-

nated unless Raiding with a British leader, because “Going

Home” means they go off the map.


Eighteenth Century armies had to submit to the cycle of the

seasons, assembling for campaigns in the spring and dispersing

for shelter before the onset of winter—particularly in the wilder-

ness. Players must do the same with their troops if they are to

avoid winter losses.

11.1 Who Suffers Attrition

During each Winter Attrition Phase, Drilled Troops may suffer

step losses. All besieged Drilled Troops are subject to Attrition,

as are any that do NOT occupy one of the following spaces:

• An originally-friendly cultivated space, OR

• An unbesieged fort or stockade space with no more than four

friendly units of any kind (leaders do not count), OR

• An unbesieged fortress.

11.2 Attrition Losses

Apply the following losses to each affected stack:

~ First, eliminate half (rounded up) of the reduced Drilled

Troops units (owner’s choice).

• Second, reduce EVERY full-strength Drilled Troops unit.

Exception: The last friendly step in a space (i.e., a lone, reduced

unit) is never removed by Attrition.

EXAMPLE: A stack of three reduced and two full-strength Drilled

Troops units is at a fort in wilderness during Winter Attrition.

The owner would eliminate two of the reduced units and then

flip both full-strength units to their reduced side.

Game of the French & Indian War


© 2010 GMT Games, LLC


12.1 General

Drilled Troops units (only) must trace a supply line to an origi-

nally-friendly fortress to be fully effective. British units also can

trace to a captured port or to an Amphib space. The supply source

must be friendly-controlled and unbesieged.

12.2 The Supply Line

The supply line consists of an unbroken chain of spaces, none of

which is occupied by unbesieged enemy fortifications or units.

An enemy fort or fortress that is under siege does NOT block


12.21 Each space, except the space being supplied, must have at

least one of the following characteristics:

• Water-connected to each adjacent space in the chain (including

the supplied space, if adjacent), OR

• Cultivated, OR

• Friendly fortification, OR

• Amphib.

Important: Units in a wilderness or mountain space need not

have a fortification to be in supply, as long as the next space in

the supply line is one of the above.

EXAMPLE: A Regular unit in a wilderness space could trace

supply to an adjacent friendly stockade, from there via a river

connection to an empty wilderness space, from there via lake-

shore to another stockade, from there to a mountain space with

a friendly fort, from there to a cultivated space, and from there

to a friendly fortress.

12.3 Out-of-Supply Effects

Drilled Troops units that cannot trace a supply line have their

activities restricted. They:

• May not build forts or stockades.

• May not roll on the Siege Table (or use the Surrender!


• May not be restored to full strength.

Important: A space is “supplied” the instant a supply line is

established. Therefore, a player could use a 2-value card to place

a stockade that creates a supply line to a second space and im-

mediately place a second stockade there.

PLAY NOTE: If besiegers become out of supply, the siege level is

unaffected—though rolls on the Siege Table are prevented until

the besiegers again have a supply line.


13.1 How to Win

13.11 Sudden Death. Check during each Victory Check Phase

(4.0 B.6) to see if any of these conditions prevail:

• If the British control [2.0] all fortresses plus solely occupy

Niagara and Ohio Forks, they win regardless of VPs.

• If either side has 11 or more VPs, it wins.

• After 1759, the French win if they have at least as many VPs

as the box on the VP Track marked with that year (8 in 1760;

5 in 1761).

13.12 Scenarios ending in 1759. If none of the above has oc-

curred by the end of 1759, the British win if they control all

originally-British fortresses plus two of the following four spaces:

Québec, Montreal, Niagara, Ohio Forks

Otherwise, whichever side has at least 1 VP wins.

~ For purposes of the above conditions only [as an excep-

tion to 8.22], the British control a besieged originally-British

fortress UNLESS the besieging force qualifies to roll on the

Siege Table [8.231].

13.13 Scenarios ending in 1762. The French win at the end of

1762 if they have at least one VP. The British win if they have

at least 5 VP.

13.14 Any other result is a draw. Exception: In a tournament, a

draw is considered a French win.

13.2 Victory Points

13.21 Victory Points (VPs) are awarded during the course of the

game as specified in the Victory Point Table. When the British

or French side gains VPs, move the VP marker that many spaces

toward its respective end of the VP Track. To mark a score greater

than 10, flip the marker to the “+10” side.

13.22 During the Remove Raided Markers phase (4.0 B.4), award

half a VP for each “Raided” marker on the map to the side that

placed it, rounding up the totals for each side. (In other words,

you get 1 VP for every ODD successful Raid you conducted.)

13.23 Whenever Niagara or Ohio Forks changes hands (becomes

solely occupied by units and/or fortifications of the other side),

the capturing side receives 1 VP (in addition to any VPs for

capturing fortifications or winning Battles).

13.3 Bidding

In tournaments, or if players both want to play the same side,

each player should write down a bid of at least 0 VPs. The higher

bidder plays the favored side. The other player begins with the

number of VPs bid by the opponent added to the scenario-defined

start level. If both players bid the same, roll a die to randomly

determine sides (the loser still adds the bid VPs).

PLAY NOTE: Tournament-level players in the Annus Mirabilis

scenario over time have tended to bid 1 or 2 points to play the


Wilderness War


© 2010 GMT Games, LLC

GMT Games, LLC

P.O. Box 1308, Hanford, CA 93232-1308



The following modifications appeal to some players, particu-

larly for the longer scenarios; use any of them only if both sides


14.1 If one of the cards #67 William Pitt or #69 Diplomatic

Revolution has been played as an event and the other is in the

discard pile, the side that could play the unplayed event automati-

cally receives that card as part of its next deal [5.21].

HISTORICAL NOTE: European diplomacy linked the escalation

of British and French war efforts.

14.2 An enemy raid marker placed within a Department [10.31]

immediately causes a step loss to one militia unit in that Depart-

ment (owner’s choice).

HISTORICAL NOTE: The population that supported militias

would flee from hard hit frontiers.

14.3 Whenever a side plays a British Regulars or French Regu-

lars event (#55-59, 64 or 68) in 1755 or 1756, it suffers –1 VP

[13.0 Victory Point Table].

HISTORICAL NOTE: The political cost of committing European

units to the New World was greater before general war was


14.4 Either the sieging or besieged side may play event #6, Sur-

render! (requirements and effects are the same).

HISTORICAL NOTE: A local commander might grant an enemy

more generous terms than distant superiors desired.

14.5 Either side may play event #66, Acadians Expelled (the

effects are the same).

HISTORICAL NOTE: Pro-French guerrilla activity in Acadia

helped inspire British deportation of the French-speaking


14.6 Each turn after 1756, immediately after dealing and ex-

amining cards, the British player may randomly discard a card


Designer: Volko Ruhnke

Developer: Rob Winslow

Art Director: Rodger B. MacGowan

Map, Card and Counter Artist: Mark Simonitch

1st Edition Project Editor: Stuart K. Tucker

Layout: Mark Simonitch

Box Cover Artist: Rodger B. MacGowan

Playtesters: Steven Bucey, Ananda Gupta, Chris Hall,

Ric Manns, John Nebauer, Mark Novara and Jim


Production Coordination: Tony Curtis

Producers: Tony Curtis, Rodger MacGowan, Andy Lewis,

Gene Billingsley and Mark Simonitch

Special thanks go to John Foley for his assistance with the

examples of play. Finally, thanks are due to all the others,

too numerous to list, who sat down with Volko or Rob to

test the game during development.

to add any one British Regulars or Highlanders card in the

discard pile to his hand. If Surrender! is discarded, reshuffle

normally [5.25].

14.7 Alternative Bidding. Each player rolls a die. The one with

the higher roll must bid by stating the VPs he would give up to

play a chosen side. The other player then may either raise the bid

to play that side or accept it to play the other. Alternate until a bid

is accepted. Bids may be any whole number of VPs, including

zero. [Replaces 13.3]