The Wars of the Roses lasted thirty-

two years, from 1455–86. However, it was

not a continuous war. Battles tended to be

bloody, and neither side could afford to

maintain a permanent army of any size.

Most military campaigns lasted only a few

months, separated by 6-12 years of uneasy



The game is intended for two players.

One player represents the House of

Lancaster (red), the other the House of

York (white). During the game, either

player may hold the throne and is called

the King. The other player is called the

Pretender. These roles can change more

than once. The game starts with the House

of Lancaster as King, and the House of York

as Pretender.


The game has twenty-five (25) cards,

nineteen (19) Action cards and six (6)

Event cards. At the beginning of each

Campaign, the cards are shuffled, and seven

(7) cards are dealt face-down to each player.

The remaining cards are not used this



• Game Map

• 63 blocks (31 red, 31 white, 1 black).

• Label sheet (for blocks)

• Cards (25)

• Dice (4)

• Rules


The game consists of three (3)

Campaigns, each of seven (7) Game

Turns, for a total of twenty-one Game

Turns. A Political Turn links the


Each Game Turn has four (4) Phases,

played in the sequence below.


Each player starts a Game Turn by

playing one (1) card facedown. The cards

are then revealed. The player with the

higher card is Player 1 that Game Turn.

The Pretender is Player 1 on ties.

Event cards have a special action

defined on the card. The player of an

Event card is always Player 1. If both

plays are Event cards, the AP values on

the two cards determines Player 1, but if

still tied, the Pretender is Player 1.

NOTE: Players must play a card, but can

do nothing if desired. Actions cannot be

saved for future use.

1.2 ACTION PHASE (5.0)

Player 1 plays, then Player 2. Card

values (ø-4) equal Action Points (AP).

Each Action Point allows:

• 1 Move: any/all blocks in one area

may move one or two areas, but must

stop if entering an enemy-occupied

area. See 5.0.

• 1 Recruit: Choose one block from

your pool and deploy at full strength on

the map. See 5.4. Blocks cannot move

in the same turn they are recruited.

Choose them after all movement is

complete, or place them face-down

until you have completed all movement.

EXAMPLE: Card AP3 allows 3 Moves, or

2 Moves and 1 Recruit, or 1 Move and 2

Recruits, or 3 Recruits.

1.3 BATTLE PHASE (6.0)

After both players have completed all

movement, battles are fought by opposing

blocks in the same area. They are fought

one at a time in any sequence determined

by Player 1.

1.4 SUPPLY PHASE (7.0)

Players simultaneously determine if

Supply Limits (7.1) and Exile Limits (7.2)

apply. Take losses as necessary.

Repeat phases 1–4 until all seven (7)

cards are played.

Henry of Lancaster

Henry VI, 1421–1471

But all his mind is bent to holiness

To number Ave Marias on his beads

His champions are the prophets and apostles

His weapons holy saws of sacred writ.

Henry VI Part II, Act I, Scene III.

Rulebook Organization

This rulebook is formatted so that the sidebar

(this column) contains examples, clarifications,

and historical commentary to help you

understand and enjoy this game.

Margaret of Anjou

Henry VI was not a warrior king, but his

dynamic queen, Margaret of Anjou, made up

for his lack. Ruthless and driven to preserve the

throne for her son, she was defeated only with

the death of Prince Edward at Tewkesbury in

1471. Margaret is listed on the Henry VI block

which would otherwise be rated C2.

Richard III

It is possible to play this game and never have

the Duke of Gloucester become Richard III.

History is changed with each game.

Richard, Duke of York died at the Battle of

Wakefield in 1460. His eldest son became

Edward IV a few months later. If York had

survived Wakefield, he would likely have

become Richard III in 1461. This often happens

in this game.

Gloucester was the youngest of York's four

sons. It took the brutal murder of Rutland by

Lord Clifford (after Wakefield), the execution

of Clarence for treason, and the early death at

age 40 of Edward IV to bring him the crown.

Even then he had to overcome a little matter of

two princes, sons of Edward IV. Gloucester has

a very good chance of becoming king in this

game, perhaps as Richard IV, but he may also

die in battle before gaining the crown.

Copyright © 2009 Columbia Games and Jerry Taylor


Version 1.02



The mapboard depicts England and

Wales in the 15th century. The Lancaster

player sits at the north edge of the map,

the York player at the south edge.


The map is divided into areas to

govern the movement and location of

blocks. Areas are separated by yellow,

blue, or red borders (5.21) which restrict


Areas can be Friendly, Enemy,

Vacant, or Contested. Changes to area

control are effective immediately.

Friendly: area occupied by one or

more of your blocks.

Enemy: area occupied by one or more

enemy blocks.

Vacant: area containing no blocks.

Contested: area containing blocks of

both players, awaiting Battle Resolution.


The major estates for nobles are

indicated by shields. Some areas contain

shields for two or more different nobles,

and some nobles have shields in two or

more different areas.

Shields provide a combat benefit of +1

firepower (B2=B3) for their noble(s) when

defending (not attacking). The defensive

benefit applies for the Defender, even if

the noble moves there this Game Turn, or

defects during battle.

When two or more heirs defend a

shield (or Crown: see 2.3) only the senior

heir present at the instant of fire gains the

combat benefit.

York has three shields on the map.

Any York heir can use any of them as

home shields. Lancaster has five shields,

but three of them are specific: Exeter

(Cornwall), Somerset (Dorset), and

Richmond (Pembroke). A Lancaster heir

can use these shields only if the assigned

noble is dead.


Some areas contain a Crown symbol.

Each crown provides the same defensive

benefits of a shield (2.2) to the current

King or one royal heir.

IMPORTANT: The senior royal heir

in a battle is +2 firepower defending his

shield and a crown. Hence, Exeter defends

Cornwall at A3, but a more senior heir, if

present, would get the crown +1 instead.


Seven cities are shown on the map:

Bristol, Coventry, London, Newcastle,

Norwich, Salisbury, and York – four cities

favor Lancaster (red names) and three

favor York (white names). Each city has a

specific levy block. Levies are +1 firepower

(C3=C4) when defending their city.


Two cathedrals exist, Canterbury and

York, the centers of the two archdioceses.

The associated church block is +1

firepower when defending its cathedral.


Wales consists of four areas: Pembroke,

Caernarvon, Powys, & Glamorgan. These

areas can be freely used by either player.

They are not exile areas. The Welsh block

is +1 firepower (A2=A3) when defending

any of the four areas of Wales.


Each player has two exile areas:

Lancaster: France & Scotland

York: Calais & Ireland

These areas can never be attacked or

entered by the enemy player.

2.71 Ireland

Ireland is home for the Irish block.

Movement to/from Ireland requires a Sea

Move (5.3) through the Irish Sea zone.

2.72 Scotland

Scotland is home for the Scots block.

Lancaster blocks can enter Scotland by

move, retreat, or regroup.

2.8 SEAS

2.81 Sea Zones

There are three Sea Zones: North

Sea, English Channel, and Irish Sea. Kent

separates the North Sea from the English

Channel. Cornwall separates the English

Channel from the Irish Sea. Scotland

separates the North Sea from the Irish Sea.

2.82 Islands

The Isle of Wight and Anglesey

are unplayable islands. The Isle of Man

contains one of two shields for Lord

Stanley. Movement to/from this island

requires a Sea Move (5.3).

2.83 Ports

All coastal areas contain minor ports,

but several contain a ship symbol that

designates a major port. Ports improve

Sea Movement (5.3).

Richard Plantagenet

Duke of York, 1411 –1460

And, by my soul, this pale and angry rose

As cognizance of my blood-drinking hate

Will I forever, and my faction wear

Until it wither with me to my grave

Or flourish to the height of my decree.

Henry VI Part I, Act II, Scene IV.


Most noble shields depict heraldic arms,

sometimes in the simplified form found on

banners and worn by retainers. A major

exception is the House of York who are all shown

bearing the famous Sun in Spendor badge of

Edward IV. Their actual arms are too similar

to those of the House of Lancaster. We have

also given historical badges to three Nevilles

(Kent, Salisbury, Warwick) and to the Earls of

Pembroke and Devon.

Royal Shields

Three of the five Lancaster royal shields are

home to specific heirs. For example, Dorset

is the home shield for Somerset, but becomes

available to any Lancastrian heir should

Somerset be killed.

Battle Sites

The main battles of the war are shown on the

map, red for Lancastrian victories and white for

Yorkist victories.

Castles & Towns

The small orange circles are significant castles

and towns. They are included only for historical



The church had huge landholdings and bishops

often had the right to raise troops. Loyalty was

an issue since many bishops were younger sons

of powerful nobles. For example, a Bourchier

was Archbishop of Canterbury, and a Neville

became Archbishop of York.

Exile Areas

Movement to/from Exile requires a Sea Move

except for Scotland. None of them can be


Copyright © 2009 Columbia Games and Jerry Taylor


Version 1.02



One label must be attached to the face

of each block. Lightly position each label,

ensure it is straight, and then press firmly

to the block.

White: House of York (31)

Red: House of Lancaster (31)

Black: Rebel (1)


3.11 Strength

The current strength of a block is

the number of diamonds on the top edge

when the block stands upright. Blocks can

have a maximum strength of 4, 3, or 2.

Strength determines how many six-

sided dice (d6) are thrown for a block in

combat. A block at strength 4 rolls 4d6

(four six-sided dice); a block at strength 1

rolls 1d6.

For each hit taken in combat, the

block’s strength is reduced by rotating

the block 90 degrees counter-clockwise.

The sidebar shows the same noble block

(Salisbury) at strength 3, 2, and 1.

3.12 Combat Rating

The Combat Rating is indicated by a

letter and number, such as A2 or B3. The

letter (initiative) determines when a block

has a battle turn. All A blocks go first, then

all B blocks, then all C blocks. The number

(firepower) indicates the maximum roll

that will score a hit. See 6.4.

3.13 Loyalty

Some blocks have a Loyalty Rating,

noted on the top left of the block. Blocks

with a crown in that location are heirs.

Blocks with a red or white rose are

loyalists who never defect. Blocks with

Loyalty Ratings of 1, 2, or 3 may defect

with a successful Treachery Roll (6.9).

IMPORTANT: Some blocks have

different Loyalty Ratings for the two sides.

For example, Rivers has Loyalty 1 as a

Lancastrian, but Loyalty 2 as a Yorkist.

NEVILLES: This powerful family is

represented by three (3) blocks: Warwick,

Salisbury, and Kent. They have a special

family Loyalty Rating. See: 6.91.

3.14 Name & Title

In most cases the family name is given

vertically to the left of the shield. If there

is no family name then it is the same as the

title (such as Stanley).


3.21 Heirs

Both sides have five (5)

heirs to the throne, each

with a crown symbol.

Heirs are ranked from 1

(senior) to 5 (junior) on the

lower right. The current

senior heir of each player is the King or

Pretender as applicable. Heirs of the

King are called royal heirs. An heir has +1

firepower (A3=A4) defending his shield. A

royal heir is also +1 defending a crown.

3.22 Nobles

Nobles are identified

by shields. The blocks

represent the noble and

his armed retinue. Nobles

bearing a red rose (top

left) are always loyal to the

House of Lancaster; those bearing a white

rose are always loyal to the House of York.

Non-rose nobles can support either

side. There are two versions of these

blocks, red when loyal to the House

of Lancaster, and white when loyal to

the House of York. Only one of these

blocks can be in play at the same time.

Nobles have +1 firepower (B2=B3) when

defending their shield(s).

3.23 Church

Two blocks, Canterbury

and York, represent the

power and influence of

the church. Each counts as

one noble for Usurpation.

These blocks have +1

firepower (C2=C3) when defending their


3.24 Levies

Both players have one

levy block for each city

of their color, plus a

Bombard. Levies start in

each player's pool and

are deployed on the map

as noted in 5.4. Levies have +1 firepower

(C2=C3) when defending their city.

3.25 Mercenaries

Both players have three (3) Mercenaries:

Lancaster: French, Scots, Welsh.

York: Burgundian, Calais, and Irish.

3.26 Rebel

Black block that fights for the


Edward Plantagenet

Earl of March,

Edward IV, 1442–83

Dazzle mine eyes, or do I see three suns

Tis wondrous strange, the like yet never heard

I think it cites us, brother, to the field

That we the sons of brave Plantagenet

Each one already blazing by our meeds

Should join our lights together

And overshine the earth.

Henry VI Part 3, Act II, Scene I.

Label Sheet

The upper labels on the die-cut sheet are

for York (white blocks) and lower labels for

Lancaster (red blocks). The Rebel label in the

middle row, separates the two sides and goes on

the black block.


Surprise is an exciting aspect of this game.

Except when fighting a battle, active blocks

stand upright facing the owner. This promotes

bluff and innovative strategies because players

are uncertain of the strength or identity of an

enemy block.


Strength 3

Strength 2

Strength 1




(Maximum 4)






Copyright © 2009 Columbia Games and Jerry Taylor


Version 1.02



The game is divided into three (3)

Campaigns of seven (7) Game Turns.

Each campaign is linked by a Political Turn

(8.0). Choose sides, Lancaster or York.


Both players deploy blocks in the areas

noted. Blocks are deployed upright at full


4.2 POOL

Each player maintains a pool off-map

that contains blocks to be recruited. These

blocks stand upright, unseen by your

opponent. Recruits are chosen from your

pool and deployed on the mapboard as

indicated in 5.4.


Henry VI (King): Middlesex

Duke of Somerset: Dorset

Duke of Exeter: Cornwall

Earl of Devon: Cornwall

Earl of Pembroke: Pembroke (Wales)

Earl of Wiltshire: Wilts

Earl of Oxford: Essex

Viscount Beaumont: Lincoln

Lord Clifford: North Yorks

French Mercenary: France

Scots Mercenary: Scotland

Duke of Buckingham: Pool

Earl of Northumberland: Pool

Earl of Shrewsbury: Pool

Earl of Westmoreland: Pool

Lord Rivers: Pool

Lord Stanley: Pool

Bristol (levy): Pool

Coventry (levy): Pool

Newcastle (levy): Pool

York (levy): Pool

York (church): Pool

Bombard: Pool

Welsh Mercenary: Pool

Prince Edward: Minor

Earl of Richmond: Minor

Canterbury (church): Enemy Noble

Duke of Clarence: Enemy Noble

Earl of Warwick: Enemy Noble

Earl of Salisbury: Enemy Noble

Earl of Kent: Enemy Noble

4.4 HOUSE OF YORK (1460)

Duke of York (Pretender): Ireland

Earl of Rutland: Ireland

Irish Mercenary: Ireland

Earl of March: Calais

Earl of Warwick: Calais

Earl of Salisbury: Calais

Earl of Kent: Calais

Calais Mercenary: Calais

Burgundian Mercenary: Calais

Duke of Norfolk: Pool

Duke of Suffolk: Pool

Earl of Arundel: Pool

Earl of Essex: Pool

Earl of Worcester: Pool

Lord Hastings: Pool

Lord Herbert: Pool

Canterbury (church): Pool

London (levy): Pool

Norwich (levy): Pool

Salisbury (levy): Pool

Bombard: Pool

Rebel: Pool

Duke of Clarence: Minor

Duke of Gloucester: Minor

Duke of Exeter: Enemy Noble

Duke of Buckingham: Enemy Noble

Earl of Northumberland: Enemy Noble

Earl of Westmoreland: Enemy Noble

Earl of Shrewsbury: Enemy Noble

Lord Rivers: Enemy Noble

Lord Stanley: Enemy Noble

York (church): Enemy Noble


Both players start the game with three

(3) heirs in play. Absent are Clarence and

Gloucester for York, and Prince Edward

and Richmond for Lancaster. These heirs

are minors when the game starts.

When an heir is killed, the most senior

minor heir enters play (see 6.82) at the

beginning of the next Supply Phase. Note

that Prince Edward is Lancastrian heir #2.


Blocks listed as Enemy Noble have two

versions, one York and one Lancaster.

The enemy version starts the game as an

enemy block, but can change sides with

Treachery Rolls (6.9). Keep your version

off-map along the east edge of the map

until a defection occurs.

Henry Holland

Duke of Exeter, 1430–75

Oh piteous spectacle! Oh bloody times!

Whilst lions war, and battle for their dens

Poor harmless lambs abide their enmity.

Henry VI Part 3, Act II, Scene V


Players have the option to start the game with

Campaign 2 or Campaign 3 for historical interest

or just to play a shorter game. Scenarios can be

found for these on our website:

Optionally, email and

we will return a PDF of these scenarios.


Surprise: Move one group. Border Limit is +1

to cross all borders. May be used for normal Sea


Force March: Move one group. Blocks can

move up to 3 areas and may attack. Sea

Movement not allowed. Border Limits apply.

Muster: Designate one friendly or vacant area.

Any/all friendly blocks can move normally

to reach the muster area. Sea Movement not


Piracy: APs must be used for Sea Moves.

Attacking is allowed, but no port-to-port bonus.

Attacking blocks can only Retreat/Regroup to

a friendly/vacant coastal area in the same sea

zone. Retreat/Regroup limits are the same as

Sea Move limits.

Treason: Move one group. One Treachery roll

can be made in any battle (started by you or

the enemy player) before it begins. The King,

Pretender, or Warwick need not be present.

Plague: Choose one enemy city area. All blocks

there lose one step, even if eliminated.

Copyright © 2009 Columbia Games and Jerry Taylor


Version 1.02




Movement is controlled by the

available Action Points (AP) on the card

played. There are 25 cards in the game,

6xAP2, 7xAP3, 6xAP4, and 6 Event cards.

Event cards have a special action

defined on the card. Both the AP value and

event are played, but the APs must be used

only for that event. Event card priority still

applies – e.g, event card APø has higher

priority than a normal AP4.

A hand that totals AP13 (or less),

including Event Cards, constitutes a

mulligan. A player holding a mulligan may

show that hand and request a redeal. This

can only be done once per campaign. The

opponent may choose to keep his own

cards or not. Reshuffle all available cards.


For one (1) Action Point, a player may

activate any/all blocks in one area for

land movement. Blocks move one or two

areas. Active blocks may move to the same

or different areas as desired.

Blocks may pass freely through friendly

blocks, but must stop and fight a battle

when they enter an enemy or contested

area. Blocks only move once per turn,

except to Retreat or Regroup.

5.21 Border Limits

The maximum number of blocks

that can cross any border per Game Turn

depends on its color:

Yellow: 4 blocks

Blue: 3 blocks

Red: 2 blocks (must stop).

Border limits apply to each player.

Both players can move two blocks across

the same red border. Note that blocks must

stop after crossing a Red border.

Example: Five (5) blocks in Middlesex

wish to move to Oxford. Four (4) can

move directly to Oxford while one (1) must

move via Leicester or Sussex.

5.22 Pinning

Blocks entering an enemy-occupied

area are Attacking; the enemy blocks are


Attacking blocks (excluding Reserves)

prevent an equal number of defending

blocks from moving. The Defender

chooses which blocks are pinned. The

"unpinned" blocks may move normally and

even attack, but cannot cross any border

used by enemy blocks to enter that battle.


Each AP allows one (1) block to move

from one coastal area to another friendly

or vacant coastal area within the same

Sea Zone (2.81). This is a separate AP

expenditure from a Land Move.

Blocks must start and end their Sea

Move in a coastal area (or exile). They

cannot also move by land in the same turn.

Blocks can Sea Move only to friendly

or vacant coastal areas, not to enemy or

contested areas.

Blocks in Calais can Sea Move to

areas on the English Channel or North Sea.

Blocks in France can Sea Move to areas

on the English Channel or Irish Sea.

Blocks located in Cornwall, Kent, and

Scotland may Sea Move to areas on either

connecting Sea Zone.

Blocks cannot Sea Move to/from

Hereford, Gloucester, or South Yorks. They

can Sea Move to Middlesex.

Blocks cannot Retreat/Regroup by Sea

Move unless using the Piracy card.

The Scots, Welsh, Rebel, and City

Levy blocks can never Sea Move.

5.31 Ports

A player can Sea Move two blocks for

AP1 when moving from one major port

(2.83) to another major port. Both blocks

must start in the same major port and

move to one Major Port.


Players may spend any/all Action

Points (AP) to recruit blocks from their

pool. Recruited blocks can NOT move in

the turn they are built. Choose and deploy

one (1) block per AP. Deploy recruits at full

strength. They do not have to be revealed.

Nobles: deploy in a friendly or vacant

area containing their shield.

Church: deploy in a friendly or vacant

area containing their cathedral.

Levies: deploy in a friendly or vacant

area containing their city.

Bombard: deploy in any friendly city area.

Rebel: deploy in any vacant area, but not

an exile area.

Mercenaries: Five mercenaries

always start in an exile location.

They are recruited simply by moving

them normally. The Welsh start in the

Lancastrian pool and deploy in any

friendly or vacant area of Wales.

Important: players may NOT add

steps to existing blocks during a campaign.

George Plantagenet

Duke of Clarence, 1449–78

When we saw our sunshine made thy spring

And that thy summer bred us no increase

We set the axe to thy usurping root

And know thou, since we hath begun to strike

We'll never leave 'til we hath hewn thee down

Or bath'd thy growing with our heated bloods.

Henry VI Part 3, Act II, Scene II

Move Example

For 1ap, a player may move any/all East Anglia

blocks to one or more of Essex, Middlesex,

Rutland, Leicester, and Lincoln. The river border

limits 3 blocks crossing directly to Rutland,

although 3 more could get there via Essex.

Pinning Example

Five (5) blocks defend Chester. Three (3) blocks

attack from Derby and one (1) from Warwick.

Assuming the Derby blocks are the Main Attack,

a total of 3 blocks in Chester are pinned, but

2 are unpinned and may leave except via the

Derby or Warwick borders.


Blocks in Glamorgan seeking to march to

Somerset, must first move to Hereford, then to

Gloucester, then to Somerset.

Blocks cannot move from Glamorgan to

Somerset, East Yorks to Lincoln, or Kent to Essex.

They can make these moves only by Sea Move.

Blocks cannot Sea Move to South Yorks,

Hereford, or Gloucester, but Middlesex (London)

is a port.

Sea Zones

Blocks in Cornwall can Sea Move to any friendly

or vacant area on the English Channel or the

Irish Sea. Blocks in Kent can Sea Move to any

friendly or vacant area on the English Channel or

the North Sea. Blocks in Scotland can Sea Move

to any friendly or vacant area on the North or

Irish seas.

Sea Moves Example

AP2 could allow 4 blocks to Sea Move from

Calais to Sandwich, or to any other port in the

English Channel or North Sea zones. Two blocks

could also go to one port and two blocks to

another port. Two blocks could also go to one

port, and one block to a non-port area.

Copyright © 2009 Columbia Games and Jerry Taylor


Version 1.02




Battles are fought one by one after all

moves are completed. Player 1 determines

which battle to fight first. Reveal blocks

in that battle by tipping them forward to

maintain current strength. After the battle

is completed, stand all blocks upright, then

Player 1 selects the next battle.


Each block has one Battle Turn per

Battle Round. In its turn, a block may

either Fire, Retreat, or Pass, except

Retreat is not allowed in Round 1. The

sequence of turns depends on combat

ratings. “A” blocks go before “B” blocks,

then “C” blocks. Defending “A” blocks go

before Attacking “A” blocks, and so on.

Exception: Bombards are A3 for

round 1, but D3 in later rounds. They

never get A3 if they enter a battle as


After all blocks have taken one Battle

Turn, one Battle Round has been fought.

Battles are fought for a maximum of four

(4) battle rounds. Attacking blocks must

retreat during Round 4 in their normal

battle turn.


A player may attack via one, two or

three different borders, up to the limits of

each border. Attacking via four different

borders is prohibited. Blocks crossing the

various borders need not start their turn in

the same area.

One border (attacker choice) must be

declared the Main Attack. Blocks using

other borders are placed in Reserve.

Example 1: York has 2 blocks in Wilts

and 4 in Kent. Both groups attack Sussex.

The Attacker declares the Kent group his

Main Attack.

Example 2: Lancaster has 1 block in

each of Middlesex, Oxford, and Gloucester.

Expending AP3, these blocks combine for

a Main Attack against 2 York blocks in

Sussex via the Oxford/Sussex river border.

Reserve blocks may not fire, retreat,

or take hits in Round 1. They arrive at the

start of Round 2 to take normal turns.

EXCEPTION: If all Round 1 blocks are

eliminated, Reserve blocks for that side

immediately deploy. They cannot fire

until Round 2, but take hits normally from

unfired enemy blocks during Round 1.

CONTROL changes if all defending blocks

are eliminated in Round 1. The Defender is

now the Attacker for further combat, and

must retreat in Round 4 if necessary.

Blocks moved by Player 2 to reinforce

a battle started by Player 1 are Reserves.

A maximum of two different borders

are allowed and reserves arrive to fight

starting in Round 2.

Example: York player attacks Essex

from Rutland with 3 blocks (main attack)

and from Middlesex with 2 blocks.

Lancastrian player has 2 blocks defending

Essex, but moves 3 blocks from East Anglia

to Essex. Round 1 has 3 Rutland blocks

attacking 2 defending Essex blocks. The

Middlesex and East Anglia blocks are

Reserves that arrive for Round 2.


Each block in its Battle Turn rolls as

many dice as its current Strength. A hit is

scored for each die roll equal to or lower

than the block’s Combat Rating.

Example: Stanley 3 rolls 3 dice. He

has B2 combat: all rolls of 1 & 2 are hits,

otherwise misses.

All hits by one block are applied

immediately to the enemy block with

the highest current Strength. If a block is

eliminated, surplus hits apply to the next

highest Strength enemy block, etc. If two

or more blocks have the highest Strength,

the owner chooses which to reduce.

Blocks defending their shields, crowns,

cathedrals, and cities have a defensive

benefit of +1 firepower. See: 2.2/2.3.


The senior heir present in each

battle at the instant of fire has the option

to Charge. The charging heir fires at a

named enemy block at normal firepower.

Surplus hits are forfeit. If the target

survives the charge, it gets one bonus fire

(normal firepower) at the charging block



Each block may retreat (instead of

attacking) on its Battle Turn, except blocks

can never retreat on Battle Round 1.

Blocks must retreat to adjacent friendly

or vacant areas. They may retreat to

multiple adjacent areas via different


Blocks may not retreat via borders that

were used by the enemy player to enter

the battle. When both players have

crossed the same border, only Player 2

may retreat via this border.

Richard Plantagenet

Duke of Gloucester

Richard III, 1452-1485

Conscience is but a word that cowards use

Devis'd at first to keep the strong in awe

Our strong arms be our conscience, swords our law

March on, join bravely, let us to the pell-mell

If not to heaven, then hand in hand to hell.

Richard III, Act V, Scene III


Some areas contain two or three deployment

symbols. For example, Northumberland

contains a shield (Northumberland) and a City

(Newcastle). The Lancastrian could expend 2ap

and recruit the noble Northumberland and the

Newcastle levy in the same turn. Similarly, East

Anglia contains two shields and one city. Here

the York player could spend 3ap and raise three

blocks from his pool – the nobles Norfolk and

Suffolk, plus the Norwich levy.

Battle Example

Herbert (A2) and Clarence (B2) attack Rivers

(B2). The Battle Turn sequence for each round

is: Herbert (A2), Rivers (B2), and Clarence (B2).

Battle Hits

Unlike most block games, all hits from one firing

block are applied to the highest strength enemy

block. Only if that block is eliminated do surplus

hits carry over to the next strongest block.

This can result in one key enemy block being

eliminated by one devastating fire, not unlike

what happened to the Duke of York, Warwick,

and Richard III.


Because both players move before combat, a

player can be the Defender in some battles, and

the Attacker in others.


Many casualties occured from pursuit. This is

naturally handled by the game system. A block

wishing to retreat must await its normal battle

turn. If the Defender survives three battle

rounds, the Attacker must retreat during round

4, but takes fire from Defender blocks that have

an earlier battle turn.

Copyright © 2009 Columbia Games and Jerry Taylor


Version 1.02


Border limits apply to retreating blocks

each Battle Round.

Blocks that cannot retreat when

required are eliminated.


When a battle ends the victor

(Attacker or Defender) may Regroup.

All victorious blocks (including any in

Reserve) may move to any adjacent

friendly or vacant areas, never to enemy or

contested areas. Border Limits (5.21) apply.


6.81 The King is Dead

The King is dead; long live the King!

The senior royal heir becomes king at his

current location (even exile) and strength

at the beginning of the next Supply

Phase. The location of the new king must

be announced. If the senior royal heir is a

minor, see 6.82.

6.82 Death of an Heir

Heirs are permanently eliminated when

killed. The enemy player keeps them off-

map as a record of the game.

When an heir is killed, the senior

minor enters play at the beginning of the

next Supply Phase.

Royal heirs enter in any friendly or

vacant Crown area. Pretender heirs enter

in either Exile area.

6.83 Death of a Noble

Rose nobles are permanently

eliminated. Other nobles (and church) go

to the owner pool face-down. They cannot

be recruited again this campaign.

Exception: The Neville blocks Kent,

Salisbury, and Warwick, are permanently


6.84 Death of a Levy

Eliminated City levies and Bombards

go to the owner pool face-down. They

cannot be recruited again this campaign.

6.85 Death of a Mercenary

Eliminated mercenaries go to their

home area face-down, except the Welsh

go face-down to the Lancastrian pool.

Mercenaries cannot be recruited again this


6.86 Death of a Rebel

The Rebel if eliminated goes to the

Pretender pool face-down. It cannot be

recruited again this campaign.


Some nobles were unreliable on the

battlefield and several upset victories

resulted from treachery.

The King, Warwick, and Pretender

may each attempt one (1) Treachery Roll

per battle (if present). A Treachery Roll is

made in a normal Battle Turn instead of

firing or retreating. Choose an enemy block

(not in Reserve) and roll as many dice as

the target's Loyalty Rating. If all numbers

(not the total) rolled are EVEN the block

defects to your Reserve at current strength

and fights normally starting next round.

EXAMPLE: Treachery Roll is made by the

King to convert Northumberland, loyalty

2. Two dice are rolled. If both numbers are

even, Northumberland defects.

The same block can receive three

Treachery Rolls in one battle, such as

one each from the Traitor card, the

Pretender, and Warwick. A Treachery Roll

cannot be made to regain a defected block

in the same battle.

6.91 Warwick

Kent and Salisbury have a small

"Warwick" shield instead of a Loyalty

Rating. These blocks have a Loyalty Rating

of 2, but only 1 if Warwick is making the

Treachery Roll.

Warwick cannot make a treachery roll

on Northumberland or Westmoreland.



Each area can supply up to four (4)

blocks without penalty. When more than

four blocks exist in one area in the Supply

Phase, each surplus block (owner choice)

is reduced one step. Blocks eliminated by

supply limit are treated as per 6.8.

CITIES: The Supply Limit in areas

containing a city is five (5) blocks.


Calais and France can each supply up

to four (4) blocks, plus local mercenaries.

Ireland and Scotland can supply two

(2) blocks plus the local mercenary.

Extra blocks (owner choice) are subject

to normal Supply Penalty. Extra blocks

(owner choice) are also sent to the player

pool during Campaign Reset (8.5). Hence,

with three York blocks in Ireland, but the

Irish block is absent, one exile is subject

to one step loss each Supply Phase. If still

overstacked, one exile (owner choice) goes

to the pool on reset.

Henry Tudor

Henry VII, 1457–1509

This pretty lad will prove our country's bliss

His looks are full of peaceful magesty

His head by nature fram'd to wear a crown

His hand to wield a sceptre; and himself

Likely in time to bless a regal throne.

Henry VI Part 3, Act IV, Scene VI.

Example Game Turn

•Deploy forces as per 4.4 and 4.5.

Game Turn 1

•Card Play: York 3, Lancaster 3. Cards are tied,

but Pretender (York) is Player 1 on ties.

•York (Player 1): Sea Move Warwick &

Salisbury from Calais to East Anglia (port to port

so both sea moves cost 1 AP). Recruit Norfolk

noble and Norwich Levy in East Anglia to

complete 3 actions.

•Lancaster (Player 2): Move Oxford block to

Middlesex. Move Beaumont block to Middlesex.

Bombard is recruited and deployed in Middlesex.

•Supply Phase: No battles were created. Neither

player has supply problems. Both players now play

one new card and another Game Turn is played.

Battle Treachery

Several battles were decided by treachery.

The Battle of Northumberland ended with a

Yorkist victory after Lord Gray, defending the

Lancastrian left, switched to support York.

Most famous of all was the Battle of Bosworth

Field where Stanley defected to the Lancastrian

side before the battle, and Northumberland,

declined to fight on a pretext that took one third

of Richard III's army out of the fight.

Defecting Nobles

Unlike Hammer of the Scots, nobles in this

game can only change sides from a Battle

Treachery roll. They do not automatically switch

sides if killed. Instead, heirs, roses, and Nevilles

are permanently dead, and the others return to

the owner's pool.

Copyright © 2009 Columbia Games and Jerry Taylor


Version 1.02



A campaign ends when all seven (7)

Game Turns have been played.

A Political Turn is now played during

which the Pretender can usurp the throne,

and armies prepare for the next campaign.

Play the political actions in the exact

order given.


Levies, Bombards, and Welsh return

to the owner's pool. Mercenaries return to

their home areas. Rebel block disbands.


Usurpation occurs when the

Pretender controls a majority of nobles

and heirs. Each church block counts as

one (1) noble. Occupation of London

(Middlesex) also counts as one (1) noble.

Exclude any blocks in exile, Isle of

Man, or the pool. Ties are won by the


If Usurpation occurs, the Pretender's

senior heir becomes King. The former

King is deposed and must go to exile as

the Pretender.


The Pretender and his heirs on map

must go to exile. Nobles/church on map

go to their own shield/cathedral, but if

enemy-occupied, then to the friendly pool.

NOTE: Warwick cannot return to Calais

if Lancastrian. Subject to Exile Limits

(7.2), nobles Salisbury and Kent (if

Yorkist) may also go to Calais if their

shield(s) are enemy-occupied. These three

Nevilles may also go to each other's shields

if their owner is dead.


The King and royal heirs on map

return to their shield or any crown area.

Nobles/Church on map go to their own

shield/cathedral, but if enemy-occupied,

then to the friendly pool.

Important: For both players, blocks

currently in exile must remain in exile.


All face-down blocks in the pool

stand-up and are available to be recruited

in the upcoming campaign. Move the

Rebel block to the Pretender pool. All

blocks in the pool and on the map are

raised to full strength.

Shuffle all 25 cards and deal seven (7)

to each player for the next campaign.


Eliminate all five (5) enemy heirs for

an instant victory. Otherwise, after the

third Campaign, play through Usurpation

(8.2) of the Political Turn. Whoever is King

wins the game.


Two heirs, Exeter (Lancaster) and

Clarence (York) are subject to Treachery

rolls and can defect to the other side.

They cannot defect if they are the King or

Pretender. If they do defect:

•They are not heirs for their new side,

just nobles who count for usurpation.

•They are not heirs (or nobles) for their

original side, but regain that status if

they defect back to that side.

•They can be executed (eliminated)

during any Supply Phase to ensure they

never defect back to their original side.

•No minor heir is activated to replace

them unless that heir is killed or


•When required to go home as an

enemy noble, Exeter goes to Cornwall,

and Clarence to any vacant York

shield, otherwise to the friendly pool.


Game Design:

Tom Dalgliesh

Jerry Taylor


Grant Dalgliesh


National Portrait Gallery

Mark Mahaffey

Tom Dalgliesh


Kevin Duke

Stan Hilinski

Mark Kwasny

Nate Merchant

Bill Powers

David Rayner

Joe Schweninger

Mike Spurlock

Columbia Games, Inc

POB 3457, Blaine

WA 98231 USA


800/636-3631 (toll free)

For game updates and discussion, see:


Areas and Control

















3.24, 5.4, 6.2

Border Limits



1.1, 5.1, 8.5







Clarence & Exeter


Combat Rating








Event Cards



2.7, 8.3

Friendly Area


Game Turns















3.21, 6.9














3.13, 6.9


3.25, 6.85



Land Movement


Sea Movement





6.83, 8.5


2.2, 8.3, 8.4



Political Turn



2.83, 5.31




3.26, 5.4, 6.86









Sea Moves


Seas & Sea Zones






Supply Phase

1.4, 7.0










3.13, 6.83, 6.9, 8.3

Copyright © 2009 Columbia Games and Jerry Taylor


Version 1.02




Victory: eliminate all enemy heirs for an

instant victory. Otherwise, whoever is king

after Usurpation wins the scenario.


King Edward IV (March): Middlesex

Duke of Gloucester: South Yorks

Duke of Buckingham: Warwick

Duke of Norfolk: East Anglia

Duke of Suffolk: East Anglia

Earl of Arundel: Sussex

Earl of Essex: Essex

Lord Hastings: Leicester

Earl Rivers: Leicester

Lord Stanley: Lancaster

Mercenary Irish: Ireland

Mercenary Calais: Calais

Mercenary Burgundian: Calais

Earl of Northumberland: Pool

Earl of Westmoreland: Pool

Canterbury (church): Pool

Bombard: Pool

Levy (London): Pool

Levy (Norwich): Pool

Levy (Salisbury): Pool

Earl of Warwick: enemy

Duke of Clarence: enemy

Earl of Shrewsbury: enemy

York (church): enemy

Duke of Exeter: enemy

Unlisted blocks have been permanently



Henry VI: Middlesex (prisoner)

Prince Edward: France

Duke of Exeter: France

Earl of Warwick: France

Duke of Clarence: France

Earl of Oxford: France

Mercenary French: France

Mercenary Scots: Scotland

Earl of Pembroke: Pool

Earl of Shrewsbury: Pool

York (church): Pool

Mercenary Welsh: Pool

Bombard: Pool

Levy (Bristol): Pool

Levy (Coventry): Pool

Levy (Newcastle): Pool

Levy (York): Pool

Rebel: Pool

Earl of Richmond: (minor)

Duke of Buckingham: enemy

Earl of Northumberland: enemy

Earl Rivers: enemy

Earl of Westmoreland: enemy

Lord Stanley: enemy

Canterbury (church): enemy

Unlisted blocks have been permanently


NOTE: Henry VI is a prisoner of Edward

IV in the Tower of London, even if no York

blocks are located in the Middlesex area.

Deploy the block face-up – it cannot move

or engage in combat, but does count as

a Lancastrian noble for Usurpation. If a

Lancastrian block occupies London, Henry

VI is rescued, becomes the Pretender, and

can then move and fight normally. If the

Yorkists win this scenario, and Henry VI is

still a prisoner, he is murdered (eliminated).

The Campaign

The Earl of Warwick defects to the

Lancastrian side after a botched 1469 revolt.

He flees to France and plots with Margaret

of Anjou to recover the throne for Henry VI.

Warwick invades and Edward IV is obliged

to flee into exile. But with the support of

Burgundy, Edward returns to England and

Warwick is killed at the Battle of Barnet. A

few weeks later, Prince Edward is defeated

and killed at Tewkesbury in Gloucester. Henry

VI, a prisoner, is murdered, which makes the

House of York secure until the untimely death

of Edward IV in 1483.

Henry VI 1421-1422-1471

Son of the great Henry V, Henry VI came

to the throne as an infant and England was

ruled by a Regency until he came of age in

1437. He proved to be a sickly, weak king,

dominated by his wife Margaret of Anjou and

prominent nobles like the Duke of Somerset.

Court intrigue led to opposition from the

powerful Duke of York, who eventually

rebelled to seek the throne. Henry was

captured after the Battle of Towton in 1461.

A prisoner of Edward IV for almost ten years,

Henry regained the throne for six months

over the winter of 1470/71 after Warwick the

Kingmaker rebelled. Lancastrian defeats at

Barnet and Tewkesbury ended that rebellion

with Warwick and Prince Edward slain in

battle, and Henry VI murdered in the Tower

of London.

Edward IV 1442-1461-1483

One of England's best military commanders,

Edward never lost a battle and won several

with bold and decisive strategy and tactics.

He became head of the House of York after

his father's death at the Battle of Wakefield in

1460. With the support of the Archbishop of

Canterbury and other prominent churchmen,

Edward seized the crown and then defeated

the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton in

1461. His 22 year reign was briefly interrupted

by a six month return to the throne by Henry

VI in 1471 after Warwick the Kingmaker

changed sides. Edward was a competent

administrator, but his reputation suffered from

later hedonistic conduct. He died suddenly

at age 41 leaving two young heirs who were

probably murdered in the Tower of London.

Copyright © 2009 Columbia Games and Jerry Taylor


Version 1.0




Victory: a player must eliminate the

sole enemy heir for an instant victory.

Otherwise, whoever is king after Usurpation

wins the scenario.


King Richard III: Middlesex

Duke of Norfolk: East Anglia

Duke of Suffolk: East Anglia

Earl of Arundel: Sussex

Earl of Essex: Essex

Earl of Northumberland: Northumbria

Lord Stanley: Lancaster

Mercenary Irish: Ireland

Mercenary Calais: Calais

Mercenary Burgundian: Calais

Earl of Westmoreland: Pool

Canterbury (church): Pool

York (church): Pool

Bombard: Pool

Levy (London): Pool

Levy (Norwich): Pool

Levy (Salisbury): Pool

Duke of Buckingham: enemy

Earl of Shrewsbury: enemy

Earl Rivers: enemy

Unlisted blocks have been permanently



Earl of Richmond: France

Earl of Oxford: France

Earl of Pembroke: France

Mercenary French: France

Mercenary Scots: Scotland

Duke of Buckingham: Glamorgan

Earl Rivers: Leicester

Earl of Shrewsbury: Pool

Mercenary Welsh: Pool

Bombard: Pool

Levy (Bristol): Pool

Levy (Coventry): Pool

Levy (Newcastle): Pool

Levy (York): Pool

Rebel: Pool

Earl of Northumberland: enemy

Earl of Westmoreland: enemy

Lord Stanley: enemy

Canterbury (church): enemy

York (church): enemy

Unlisted blocks have been permanently


The Campaign

Richard Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester and

young brother of Edward IV, was named

regent in the king's will.

Richard quickly discovered that the widowed

queen (and her Woodville family) sought to

retain power by controlling the two heirs. He

seizes the heirs and, encouraged by the Duke

of Buckingham, takes the throne as Richard

III after persuading Parliament to declare the

two princes to be bastards.

The Duke of Buckingham now rebels and

supports the Lancastrian Duke of Richmond

(Henry Tudor) exiled in Brittany. His revolt

in Wales fails and the duke is betrayed and

quickly executed. Popular support for Richard

III plummets when murder of the two heirs is

suspected, although never proven.

After an aborted invasion in 1483, Richmond

lands in Wales in early August 1485. He

gathers modest support from the Welsh, until

Lord Stanley (his father-in-law) defects to his

side. Richard III gathers an army in Derby to

meet the invader. At the Battle of Bosworth

Field, the king is betrayed by the Earl of

Northumberland and dies charging the enemy

position. Richmond wins the crown as Henry


Richard III 1452-1483-1485

Some scholars argue that Richard III is a

victim of Tudor propaganda. He was an

effective and loyal military commander for

Edward IV, and a hugely popular lord of the

north for many years. He was named by the

dying king Edward IV as regent. It is difficult

to reconcile these historical facts with the evil

hunchback depicted by Shakespeare.

The infamous murder of the two princes in

the Tower of London probably happened,

but was more likely ordered by the Duke of

Buckingham, or even by Henry VII.

Henry VII 1457-1485-1509

Henry was the Welsh born son of Edmund

Tudor and Margaret Beaufort. He spent most

of his early life in captivity or exile, but got

support for the throne as the last surviving

Lancastrian after Richard III's unsavory

usurpation. He defeated Richard III at the

Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 and founded

the House of Tudor. He was succeeded by his

son Henry VIII.

Copyright © 2009 Columbia Games and Jerry Taylor


Version 1.0