Julius Caesar brings the drama of the
most famous and significant Roman Civil
War (49–45 BC) to life. Players take control
of the legions of Caesar or Pompey and
fight to determine the future of Rome –
republic or empire.
The game is intended for two players.
One player represents Julius Caesar, the
other Pompey the Great.
The game is divided into five (5) Years,
each with five (5) game turns. After each
Year ends, a Winter Turn (8.0) is played
when players check to see if either has
To determine victory, after each Year,
players score the total value of Friendly
cities, plus one Victory Point (1vp) for each
enemy leader killed. To win, a player must
have 10 (or more) VPs.
If neither player wins by the end of
Year 5, the winner is the player with the
higher VPs. If still tied, the game is won
by the player holding Rome. Otherwise the
game is a draw.
• Game Map
• 63 blocks (31 tan, 31 green, 1 blue).
• Label sheet (for blocks)
• Cards (27)
• Dice (4)
• These Rules
2.0 GAME TURNS
There are five Years in the game, each
divided into five Game Turns. Each game
turn has three (3) Phases, played in the
2.1 CARD PHASE
There are twenty-seven (27) cards:
twenty (20) Command cards and seven
(7) Event cards. At the beginning of each
Year, the cards are shuffled and six (6)
cards are dealt to each player. Examine
your cards and discard one (1). The discard
is not revealed.
Each player starts a game turn by
playing one (1) card face-down. The cards
are then revealed. Card values are Moves
(banner) and Levies (circles on banner
staff). The player with the higher Move
card is Player 1 that game turn.
IMPORTANT: If the cards played are
equal (Move number) Caesar is Player 1.
Event cards have a special action
defined on the card. The player of an
Event card is always Player 1. However,
if both plays are Event cards, both events
are cancelled and the game turn ends.
NOTE: Players must play a card, but can
elect to take less moves/levies if desired.
Commands cannot be saved for future use.
2.2 COMMAND PHASE
Player 1 moves and levies (or executes
an Event), then Player 2 moves and levies.
• Move: Each move allows one Group
(any/all blocks in one location) to move
one or two cities; Navis can move one
or two seas. Blocks cannot attack or
reinforce if they move two cities/seas.
Blocks entering a city or sea containing
enemy blocks must stop. See 6.0 for
• Levy: for each Levy, one (1) step can
be added to one (1) existing block, or
one (1) new block can be chosen from
a player's Levy Pool and deployed on
the map at strength I. Choose levies
after all movement is complete – they
cannot move in the same turn. See 6.4
2.3 BATTLE PHASE
Battles are fought between opposing
blocks in the same city or sea. They are
fought one at a time in any sequence
determined by Player 1. See: 7.0 for details.
The Roman Calendar
Few Romans knew or cared what year it was,
but those who did counted the years from the
semi-fabled founding of Rome by Romulus in
754BC. Hence the civil war began in 705 (49bc),
and the assassination of Julius Caesar occurred
in 710 (44bc) of the Roman Calendar.
Julius Caesar established the Julian Calendar
in 709 (45bc). This Calendar corrected a two
month error in the solar cycle and established
the leap year concept to keep it accurate.
The month of July was renamed after Caesar.
With minor revisions to leap years, this is the
Calendar we still use (in the West) today.
City vps total 13. Pompey starts the game
holding 7vp while Caesar has only 1vp (Massilia).
Rome, Athens, Byzantium, and Ephesus are
Vacant. The burden of attack lies with Caesar to
avoid an early defeat.
The deck contains seven (7) event cards, each
of them named after a major Roman deity.
These cards allow special actions to occur that
break the normal rules. See each card for details.
Game Turn Example
•Card Play: Caesar 2/1, Pompey 2/2. Cards are
tied (compare only Moves) but Caesar is Player
1 on ties.
•Caesar (Player 1): 2 Moves then 1 Levy
•Pompey (Player 2): 2 Moves then 2 Levies
•Battle Phase: Resolve any battles in the order
chosen by Player 1.
Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games
One label must be attached to the face
of each block. Lightly position each label,
ensure it is straight, and then press firmly
to the block.
3.1 BLOCK DATA
The current strength of a block is the
Roman numeral on the top edge when the
block stands upright. Blocks can have a
maximum strength of IV, III, or II.
Strength determines how many six-
sided dice (d6) are rolled for a block in
combat. A block at strength IV rolls 4d6
(four six-sided dice); a block at strength I
For each hit taken in combat, the
block’s strength is reduced by rotating the
block 90 degrees counter-clockwise. The
sidebar shows the same block at strength
III, II, and I.
3.12 Combat Rating
The Combat Rating is indicated by
a letter and number, such as A2 or B3.
The letter (initiative) determines when
a block has a battle turn. All A blocks go
first, then all B blocks, then all C blocks.
If tied, the Defender has the first battle
turn. The number (firepower) indicates the
maximum roll that will score a hit. See 7.3.
Legions have a city name where this
block must be recruited when deployed
from the Levy Pool.
3.2 BLOCK TYPES
Both sides have three (3)
Caesar, Antonius, Octavian
Pompey, Scipio, Brutus.
Leader blocks include
their significant guards,
generally elite cavalry. Players start the
game with two leaders. The third may be
brought into play if a leader is killed (see:
Legions are identified by
an Eagle icon. They have
a number ID on the top
left, and a levy city on
the bottom. Legions have
combat ratings of C2, C3,
or C4, with veteran legions having the
Both players have four (4)
Auxilia, two light infantry
(B1) and two archers (A1).
These troops can be raised
in any Friendly city.
Equitatus (cavalry) are
rated B2 or B3. Like
legions, they are raised in
specific Friendly cities.
These cities have a nearby
equitatus symbol on the
map. Caesar has four (4) equitatus. Pompey
has three (3) equitatus, but also one
Each player has one
(1) Ballista. They have
different combat values for
defense and offense, see
7.42. They can be built in
any Friendly city.
Players have five (5) Navis
to represent the warships
used by both sides. They
have D2 or D3 combat. In
a sea battle this "D" rating
has no impact since all
Navis have the same rating, but they are
vulnerable in land battles. Navis must be
built in Friendly major ports, identified on
the map with a Navis symbol.
Cleopatra represents the
forces of Egypt and is
rated C1. She is not a
leader per these rules.
Cleopatra starts play on
the Pompey side, but can
fight for either side. See: 7.52.
The red labels on the die-cut sheet are for
Caesar (tan blocks) and ochre labels for Pompey
(green blocks). The Cleopatra label goes on the
Surprise is an exciting aspect of this game.
Except when fighting a battle, active blocks
stand upright facing the owner. This promotes
bluff and innovative strategies because players
are uncertain of the strength or identity of an
Romans were never considered exceptionally good
horsemen, at least not after the connection between
cavalry and the aristocracy was abandoned. By the
time of late Republic, the Equitatus was generally
made up of non-Roman horsemen from Gallia,
Germania, Hispania, Numidia, Syria, and Thracia.
Caesar used Germanic cavalry to fight the Gauls
and also to serve as his formidable bodyguard.
There is one Elephant block for Pompey. Caesar
would not have elephants in his army believing them
to be fragile and unpredictable.
Strength III Strength II
Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games
The mapboard depicts the
Mediterranean Sea and surrounding
territory. The Caesar player sits at the
north edge of the map, Pompey player at
the south edge.
Blocks on the map must be located on
cities or seas. Navis must be located on
seas or in port cities.
Cities govern the movement and
location of blocks. Eleven cities have a
value of 1 or 2. These numbers (total 13)
are Victory Points (VPs). The numbers
are also significant for Wintering (8.4).
4.21 City Control
The control status of a city can be:
Friendly: Occupied by one or more of
Enemy: Friendly to your opponent.
Vacant: Friendly to neither player.
Contested: Contains blocks of both
players, awaiting Battle Resolution.
IMPORTANT: Changes to city control
are effective immediately. Friendly cities
become immediately neutral when left
Vacant. Similarly, attacking an Enemy city,
even with one block, immediately converts
it to Contested status until the battle is
Cities are connected by important
roads of the period, some of them named
for historical interest. Blocks move from
one city to another via these roads.
4.31 Road Classes
Two classes of road are depicted,
Major (solid line) and Minor (dotted line).
In one game turn, four (4) blocks can move
along a Major Road, but only two (2) along
a Minor road. See 6.11.
Four straits appear on the map, each
identified by a blue arrow: Herculeum,
Messana, Hellespontus, and Bosphorus.
Each game turn, two (2) land blocks may
cross each strait, but only one (1) land
block when the city on the other side is
Navis ignore straits when moving from
one sea to an adjacent sea. Control of
cities on either side of a strait has no effect
on Navis or Amphibious movement.
There are nine (9) seas: Atlanticus,
Hispanum, Tyrrhenum, Internum,
Hadriaticum, Egypticum, Aegaeum, Propontis,
and Pontus Euxinus. These seas can only be
occupied and controlled by Navis.
Friendly: Seas occupied by one or
more of your Navis.
Enemy: Seas occupied by one or more
Vacant: Friendly to neither player.
Contested: Seas containing Navis of
both players, awaiting Battle Resolution.
SEA CONTROL: As with cities, changes
to sea control are effective immediately. A
sea immediately becomes neutral when it
is left Vacant.
The islands of Corsica, Sardinia, Sicilia,
Creta, and Cyprus are playable. All other
islands are unplayable. Moves to-from
playable islands requires a Navis or
Amphibious Move (6.3).
All cities located on a coastline are
ports. Some ports have a Navis symbol
that designates a major port, which are
essential for building Navis.
Ports located on sea borders allow
access to two (2) seas. Utica and Creta
have access to three (3) seas. See
sidebar for clarification.
The main battles of the war are shown on the
map, red for victories by Caesar and green for
Below is a list of ports and their adjacent seas.
Major ports are indicated in Caps.
Atlanticus: Burdigala, Gades, Olisipo, Portus,
Hispanum: Caralis, Carthago Nova, Genua,
Iomnium, Massilia, Narbo, Siga,
Tarraco, Tingis, Utica.
Tyrrhenum: Aleria, Caralis, Genua, Lilybaeum,
Messana, Neapolis, Rhegium,
Internum: Ambracia, Brundisium, Creta,
Cyrene, Lilybaeum, Messana,
Pylos, Rhegium, Syracuse,
Tacape, Thubactus, Utica.
Hadriaticum: Aquileia, Brundisium,
Dyrrachium, Ravenna, Salone,
Aegaeum: Aenos, Athena, Creta, Ephesus,
Propontis: Byzantium, Nicomedia.
Euxinus: Byzantium, Sinope.
Egypticum: Alexandria, Antioch,
Catabathmus, Creta, Perga,
Pelusium, Salamis, Tarsus.
Apollo: the trickster Sun God grants you the
power to copy the card played by your
opponent last turn. If that card was an event
card, it copies that card exactly.
Jupiter: the King of the Gods grants you a
defection of one enemy block adjacent
to a friendly city. Navis at sea could be
chosen, but note that Leaders and Navis do
not defect. They are reduced by one step.
Cleopatra is not a leader and can defect
using this card.
Mars: the God of War grants a surprise attack.
All attacking blocks in one battle get to fire
before any defending blocks in Round 1.
Caution: the Defender may get two fires in a
row (last in Round 1 and first in Round 2).
Mercury: the Messenger of the Gods allows
blocks in one group to move one extra city.
Blocks can move in multiple directions, and
use the bonus (or not) as desired.
Neptune: the God of the Sea favors your sea
battle or shore attack. This is essentially a
"Mars" card for ships.
Pluto: The God of Death likes big battles.
He allows road limits to be increased for
one Group Move, but not for Regroups or
Vulcan: Reduces all blocks in a designated city
by one step. No exceptions. All blocks at
strength I, including leaders, are eliminated.
Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games
5.1 HISTORICAL DEPLOYMENT
Both players deploy blocks in cities as
noted. Blocks are always deployed upright
at full strength.
5.2 LEVY POOL
Each player maintains a Levy Pool
off-map. Blocks in the Levy Pool stand
upright to conceal their identity. Players
expend Levy Points to deploy blocks from
their pool to the map. Except for Leaders
(see 7.51) blocks that are eliminated during
play are returned to the Levy Pool, but are
always placed face-up until the current
Year ends. These blocks cannot be levied
until the next Year.
5.3 FREE DEPLOYMENT
An optional deployment method.
Players deploy blocks as per historical OB,
but may swap any blocks on the map as
long as the original number of deployed
blocks in each city is maintained. Blocks
from the Friendly Levy Pool cannot be
EXAMPLE: In the historical OB, Pompey
has three (3) blocks in Neapolis. For free
deployment, any three blocks from the
historical deployment can be there.
CAESAR, 705 (49 BC)
Legio 13: Ravenna
Navis 2: Ravenna
Legio 8: Genua
Legio 12: Genua
Legio 11: Massilia
Legio 14: Massilia
Navis 1: Massilia
Legio 7: Narbo
Legio 9: Narbo
Legio 10: Narbo
Legio 16: Lugdunum
Equitatus 1: Lugdunum
Legio 17, 18, 19, 20, 21
Auxilia 1, 2, 3, 4
Equitatus 2, 3, 4
Navis 3, 4, 5
POMPEY, 705 (49 BC)
Legio 1: Neapolis
Navis 1: Neapolis
Legio 3: Brundisium
Legio 37: Syracuse
Legio 34: Antioch
Navis 2: Alexandria
Legio 39: Utica
Navis 3: Utica
Legio 2: Carthago Nova
Legio 4: Carthago Nova
Legio 5: Tarraco
Legio 6: Tarraco
Equitatus 1: Tarraco
Legio 32, 33, 35, 36, 38
Auxilia 1, 2, 3, 4
Equitatus 2, 3, Elephant
Navis 4, 5
Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games
6.0 COMMAND PHASE
Player 1 Moves and then Levies with
the values from his active card, then Player
2 does the same.
6.1 GROUP MOVES
Command cards have Move Points
(MP) of 1 to 4. Each MP allows any/
all block(s) in one location (city or sea)
to move to adjacent cities/seas. If not
attacking, blocks may continue to the next
Blocks that move cannot move
again this game turn, except to Retreat
or Regroup. When a block has finished
moving, turn it face-down to show that it
cannot move again this turn.
6.11 Road Limits
The maximum number of blocks that
can move along any road varies by type:
Major: 4 blocks
Minor: 2 blocks
Straits: 2 blocks (1 if attacking)
Example: A maximum of 4 blocks may
move from Genua to Rome, and one or two
blocks may move from Ravenna to Rome.
Road Limits apply to each player.
Hence, both players can move two blocks
along the same minor road in the same
Example: Player 1 moves 4 blocks from
Massilia to Genua to Ravenna. Player 2
now moves 4 blocks from Rome to Genua
to Massilia. Both players used the road
section between Massilia and Genua, but
at different times. Of course, if Player 1
had left at least 1 block in Genua, Player 2
could not have moved through this block to
Massilia without fighting a battle.
Blocks entering an Enemy city/sea
are Attacking; the enemy blocks are
Blocks may attack from adjacent
cities/seas only. A player may attack via
two or more roads, but each road will
require a separate MP. See 6.2 and 7.3.
Attacking blocks (excluding Reserves)
prevent an equal number of defending
blocks from moving. The Defender
chooses which blocks are pinned. The
"unpinned" blocks may move normally and
even attack, but cannot use any road or
sea border used by the enemy that battle.
6.14 Response Movement
Player 2 can expend MPs to move
unpinned blocks to reinforce Defending
blocks in Contested cities/seas. Blocks can
Respond only from adjacent cities/seas.
IMPORTANT: Responding blocks are
always placed in Reserve. See: 7.3.
There is no stacking limit for blocks
during a Year. Stacking applies during the
Winter Turn. See 8.4.
6.2 NAVIS MOVEMENT
Navis move from a port to an adjacent
sea (or vice-versa), or from one sea to an
adjacent sea. They can never move from
one port directly to another port, except
via the adjacent sea.
When located with land blocks, Navis
can move to sea as part of a group move
for that city. See: Navis Move Examples.
Navis can make one (1) move and
attack, or two (2) moves and not attack.
See sidebar for examples.
Navis can attack/respond only from
an adjacent sea/port. See Battle Reserves
(7.3) for more details about attacking and
6.3 AMPHIBIOUS MOVEMENT
Land blocks may move from one port
to any other Friendly or Vacant port
across one or more adjacent Friendly
seas. Cost is 1 MP per block.
Amphibious movement must be made
before any other moves are made that
turn. Hence, a sea used in amphibious
movement must already be Friendly before
any other moves are made that turn.
Blocks cannot move by land and sea
in the same turn (or vice-versa). 1 Navis
block must remain in the sea that was
crossed for the entire Command Phase;
other Navis may move as desired.
Amphibious moves can never be made
to Enemy or Contested ports. Unpinned
(6.13) land blocks in a Contested city may
conduct an amphibious move provided the
adjacent sea is Friendly.
For 1mp, a player may move any/all Massilia
blocks to one or more of Narbo, Lugdunum, and
Genua. If not attacking, blocks can move further
to any/all of Tarraco, Burdigala, Cenabum,
Treveri, Ravenna, or Rome. If some of the
Massilia blocks are Navis, they can move to
Mare Hispanum, then to an adjacent sea or port
if not attacking.
Movement & Attacking
Blocks can move only one city/sea when they
attack. This has many subtle implications. For
example, assuming 6 Caesar blocks located in
Massila and 3 Pompey blocks in Tarraco and
3 in Genua. The Caesar blocks cannot attack
Tarraco since that is two moves away. Genua
is adjacent and can therefore be attacked with
4 Caesar blocks (road limit). Unlike many
other games, however, the remaining 2 Caesar
blocks cannot also attack Genua via Lugdunum
since that would be a move of two cities. Note
however, the effect of the Mercury card which
could allow an attack on Tarraco, and/or a
two-pronged attack on Genua.
Five (5) blocks defend Rome. Four (4) blocks
attack from Genua and two (2) from Ravenna,
the latter being reserves. Assuming the Genua
blocks are the Main Attack, a total of 4 blocks
in Rome are pinned, but 1 is unpinned and may
move except via the two roads being used by
The function of Navis are to win control of a
Sea to enable amphibious movement. They can
also attack and occupy enemy ports, or occupy
Navis Move Examples
1. Navis located in Massilia can move to a
Friendly or Vacant Mare Hispanum. If not
attacking, the Navis can then move to Oceanus
Atlanticus, or Mare Tyrrhenum, or to any other
Friendly or Vacant port on Mare Hispanum
(Utica, Caralis, Iomnium, Siga, Tingis, Carthago
Nova, Tarraco, Narbo, and Genua).
2. Navis located on Mare Internum can move
to Mare Tyrrhenum, Mare Hadriaticum, Mare
Aegaeum, or Mare Egypticum. If not attacking, a
Navis that moved to Mare Aegaeum could move
to another adjacent Friendly or Vacant sea
(Propontis or Mare Egypticum) or to any Friendly
or Vacant port on this sea, (Creta, Athena,
Thessalonika, Aenos, or Ephesus). Note that the
city of Pergamum is not a port.
Amphibious Move Example
Caesar has 3 Navis, 1 each on Mare Tyrrhenum,
Mare Internum, and Mare Egypticum. He elects to
spend 2mp to make an amphibious move of two
legions from Rome to Antioch, which is Vacant.
This is possible because the three seas crossed
are Friendly and adjacent, and the amphibious
move is made before any other move. Note that
an Amphibious move by Player 1 is completed
in the Command Phase, before Player 2 moves.
Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games
Command cards have 1, 2, or 3 Levy
Points (LP). Each LP allows:
• One (1) step to be added to one (1)
existing block. Multiple steps can be
added to the same block, each for LP1.
• One (1) new block can be chosen from
a player's Levy Pool and deployed in
a city at minimum strength. Steps can
be added to a new block immediately,
each step costing LP1 (including the
elephant). Multiple new blocks can be
deployed in the same city if desired.
Leaders deploy in any Friendly city.
Legions deploy in their named city,
which must be Friendly.
Equitatae/Elephant deploy in their
named city, which must be Friendly.
Auxilia/Ballista deploy in any
Navis deploy in any Friendly major
port. Steps can be added to existing
Navis in any port, but never at sea.
IMPORTANT: In all cases, new blocks
and steps must be raised in Friendly cities,
meaning a city currently occupied by at
least one Friendly block. New blocks and
steps can never be added to Vacant or
7.1 BATTLE SEQUENCE
Battles are fought one by one after all
moves are completed. Player 1 determines
which battle to fight first. Blocks are not
revealed until a battle is fought. Reveal
blocks (not Reserves) by tipping them
forward at current strength. After the battle
is completed, stand all blocks upright, then
Player 1 selects the next battle.
7.2 BATTLE TURNS
Each block has one battle turn per
Battle Round. In its turn, a block may
either Fire, Retreat, or Pass, except
Retreat is not allowed in Round 1.
The sequence of turns depends on
combat ratings. “A” blocks go before “B”
blocks, then “C” blocks, then "D" blocks.
Defending “A” blocks go before Attacking
“A” blocks, and so on.
After all blocks have taken one Battle
Turn, one Round has been fought. Battles
are fought for a maximum of four (4)
Rounds. Attacking blocks must retreat
during Round 4 in their normal battle turn.
7.3 BATTLE RESERVES
When attacking via two or more roads
or sea borders, one road/border (Attacker
choice) must be declared the Main
Attack. Blocks using other roads/borders
Blocks moved by Player 2 to reinforce
a battle started by Player 1 are also
Reserve blocks may not fire, retreat,
or take hits in Round 1. They are revealed
and arrive at the start of Round 2 to take
Example: Caesar attacks Tarraco
from Narbo with 4 blocks (main attack)
and from Bilbilis with 2 blocks. Pompey
has 3 blocks defending Tarraco, but
moves 4 blocks from Nova Carthago to
Tarraco. Round 1 has the 3 Tarraco blocks
defending against 4 Caesar blocks from
Narbo. Caesar blocks from Bilbilis and
Pompey blocks from Nova Carthago are
Reserves that arrive for Round 2.
Reserve blocks are Disrupted if
their main force is eliminated in Round 1.
Disrupted blocks immediately lose one (1)
step and then fight normally.
IMPORTANT: If the disrupted player is
the Defender, the Attacker now becomes the
Defender for the rest of the battle.
7.4 Battle HITS
Each firing block in its Battle Turn rolls
as many dice as its current strength. A hit
is scored for each die roll equal to or lower
than the block’s firepower.
Example: Caesar 3 rolls 3 dice. He has
A3 combat: rolls of 1, 2, 3 are hits.
Each hit reduces the strongest enemy
block at that instant. When two or more
blocks share the highest strength, the
owner chooses which to reduce. Except for
Leaders, when blocks are reduced below
strength I, they are immediately eliminated
(see 7.5) and returned to the Levy Pool.
Note: combat is not simultaneous. All
hits are applied immediately.
The elephant block has two steps, IV
and II. It drops one step per hit which
means the block is powerful but fragile.
The Ballista block fights at B4 when
Defending, but at D4 when Attacking.
Battle sequence (7.1) is controlled by Player
1. This can be significant because the results
of a battle will change city or sea control from
Contested to Friendly for the victor and that
impacts Retreats and Regroups.
Caesar (A3) and Equitatus (B2) attack Pompey
(B3) and Navis (D2). Battle Turn sequence:
Caesar: attacking A3
Pompey: defending B3
Caesar Equitatus: attacking B2
Pompey Navis: defending D2
Because both players move before combat, a
player can be the Defender in some battles, and
the Attacker in others.
Each hit reduces the strongest enemy block at
that instant. Hence, if two hits are scored on
three enemy blocks at strength III, II, II, the first
hit must be taken on the enemy III block. All
three blocks are now at strength II, so the next
hit can be on any enemy block (owner choice).
Pursuit is naturally handled by the game system.
A block wishing to retreat must await its normal
battle turn which allows faster enemy troops
to fire before they can retreat. If the Defender
survives three Battle Rounds, the Attacker
must retreat during round 4, but takes fire from
defending blocks that have an equal or earlier
Several legions switched sides during the war,
This is represented by the Jupiter card, which
switches one block to the enemy side. Even the
famous 13th legion, which crossed the Rubicon
with Caesar, later rebelled and changed sides.
Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games
7.5 ELIMINATED BLOCKS
Eliminated blocks are returned to their
owner's Levy Pool, but are placed face-up
(in front of the upright blocks) and cannot be
levied again this Year.
Leaders are permanently eliminated.
Give the block as a "trophy" to the enemy
player, who counts it as 1vp.
When a player loses a leader, the
third leader is added to the Levy Pool and
becomes available to be built and deployed
(normal cost) in any Friendly city.
Cleopatra can fight for either side. If
eliminated in battle she immediately joins
the other side at strength I and fights for
that side on her next battle turn.
During each Winter turn, she must
return to Alexandria. See 8.1.
Each block may retreat on its Battle
Turn (instead of firing), except blocks can
never retreat on Battle Round 1. Blocks
that cannot retreat when required are
7.61 Retreat Limits
Road Limits (6.11) apply to all
retreating blocks each Battle Round.
Blocks can never retreat to Enemy or
Retreating across a strait has a limit of
one (1) block per round.
7.62 Attacker Retreats
Attacking blocks can retreat on their
battle turn starting in Round 2 and must
retreat during Round 4. Blocks may Retreat
to an adjacent Vacant city via road(s) used
to start or reinforce the battle, or to any
Friendly adjacent cities.
7.63 Defender Retreats
Defending blocks can retreat on their
battle turn starting on Round 2. Retreat is
made to any adjacent cities, Friendly or
Vacant, but not along roads used by the
Attacker to enter the battle.
7.64 Sea Retreats
Players can retreat land blocks by
sea provided an adjacent sea is Friendly.
A maximum of one (1) block per Battle
Round can Sea Retreat. The destination
port must be Friendly. Each block can Sea
Retreat across one (1) adjacent sea, to a
Friendly port(s) on that same sea only.
If both players have an adjacent and
Friendly sea and a Friendly destination,
both can sea retreat.
EXAMPLE: with a battle in Utica, if one
player has a Navis on Mare Internum, and
the other has a Navis on Mare Hispanum,
both players can Sea Retreat via their own
When a battle ends the victor may
Regroup. All victorious blocks (including
any in Reserve) can move to any adjacent
city that is currently Friendly or Vacant.
Road Limits (6.11) apply.
Amphibious Movement cannot be
used to Regroup.
7.8 NAVIS BATTLES
When enemy Navis occupy the same
sea a Navis battle occurs. Navis have D2
or D3 combat, Defender first. As with land
battles, the attacker must retreat during
Round 4 if any defending ships remain.
7.81 Shore Combat
Navis can also be involved in battles
ashore in ports, either as the Attacker
or Defender. Navis can attack from an
adjacent sea only.
7.82 Navis Retreats
Navis may retreat in their normal "D"
battle turn, starting in Round 2.
Attacking Navis Retreat to:
• Seas or Ports they came from, provided
these locations are still Friendly or
• Friendly adjacent seas, or
• Friendly ports on the same sea.
Defending Navis Retreat to:
• Friendly adjacent seas, or
• Vacant adjacent seas except where
the Attacker came from, or
• Friendly port on the same sea.
If no Retreat is possible, Navis must
win the fight or perish.
7.83 Navis Regroups
Navis that win a sea battle can
Regroup to any adjacent sea that is
Friendly or Vacant, or to any Friendly or
Vacant port on the same sea.
60 BC: First Triumvirate formed between Caesar,
Crassius, and Pompey. Caesar is made proconsul
of Gaul, Cisalpine Gaul, and Illyricum, commanding
four legions. Pompey is made proconsul of
Hispania, and Crassius proconsul of Syria.
53 BC: Crassius is killed fighting in Parthia ending
the First Triumvirate. Pompey governs Hispania
from Rome while Caesar fights in Gaul.
52 BC: Caesar commands ten legions and defeats
Vercingetorix at Alesia, ending the Gallic Wars.
Cato, Pompey, and Scipio lead a Senate faction
opposed to Caesar's "populist policies". The Senate
demands Caesar disband and return to Rome to
answer charges of "war crimes". Caesar refuses to
disband arguing he is proconsul of Gaul until 49BC.
50 BC: Caesar now has nine veteran legions, 3000
cavalry, and a 900 man bodyguard. Pompey has
seven legions in Hispania, two in Italia, and two
in Syria and Africa. Pompey has naval superiority.
Senate declares Caesar an enemy of the state.
49 BC: Caesar crosses Rubicon with XIII Legion
in January. Pompey retreats from Rome to
Brundisium. Caesar besieges Brundisium, but
Pompey escapes by ship to Greece. Caesar now
marches to Spain, where he forces five Pompey
Legions to surrender at Llerda.
48 BC: Caesar and Antonius assemble five legions
at Brundisium and ship them to Greece. The
Battle of Dyrrachium is fought in July, ending
with a Pompey victory. Caesar retreats but then
wins a decisive victory at Pharsalus in Thessaly.
Pompey flees to Egypt where he is assassinated by
command of Ptolemy XIII. Caesar now becomes
involved in a civil war between Ptolemy XIII and
his sister Cleopatra VII. Caesar supports Cleopatra
and defeats Ptolemy XIII who drowns in the Nile.
47 BC: Caesar attacks into Syria and Pontus,
defeating Pharnaces II, a petty king who took
advantage of the Roman Civil War to expand his
power. Pharnaces is crushed at Battle of Zela, said
to be the origin of the famous phrase "Veni, Vidi,
Vici" (I came, I saw, I conquered).
46 BC: Battle of Thapsus. Caesar invades Africa
with 10 legions and defeats Scipio's 14 legions.
Scipio & Cato take their own lives. Pompey's son,
Sextus Pompey, escapes to Hispania to continue
45 BC: Battle of Munda. Caesar invades Hispania
by sea with 8 legions. He defeats Sextus (13 legions)
who is killed, ending the war.
44 BC: On the Ides of March, Caesar is
assassinated in a conspiracy arranged by Brutus
and Cassius. The assassins flee Rome; Antonius and
Octavian assume command.
42 BC: Battle of Phillipi. Octavian and Antonius
defeat Brutus and Cassius, who both commit
suicide. Eleven years later, the two victors fight for
supremacy, a struggle that Octavian wins at Actium
to become Augustus, the first Emperor of Imperial
Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games
8.0 WINTER TURN
A Year ends when all five (5) cards
have been played. A Winter Turn now
occurs during which players determine if
either has won. Play the winter events in
the exact order given.
8.1 CLEOPATRA GOES HOME
Move Cleopatra to Alexandria. If
enemy-occupied, she joins that side
immediately at her current strength.
Determine if one player has won.
8.3 NAVIS TO PORT
Move all Navis to a Friendly port on
the same sea (Caesar first). Navis unable
to move to a Friendly port are disbanded,
but can be rebuilt in the upcoming Year.
8.4 WINTER SUPPLY
All cities can supply in winter a
maximum of three (3) blocks without
penalty. This limit is increased by the city
value if any. Hence, Genua can support 3
blocks, Massila can support 3+1=4, and
Rome can support 3+2=5.
Each surplus block (owner choice) is
disbanded to the Friendly Levy Pool, but
can be rebuilt in the upcoming Year.
Players cannot merge blocks on the
map. They may disband any block (except
Cleopatra) to their Levy Pool. Steps on
disbanded blocks are forfeit, but they can
be rebuilt in the upcoming Year.
8.6 YEAR RESET
All face-up blocks in Levy Pools stand-
up and are available to be recruited in the
Shuffle all 27 cards and deal six (6)
cards to each player. Examine your cards
and discard one (1). The discard is not
3.27, 7.52, 8.1
1.2, 3.21, 7.51
Major & Minor Roads
Columbia Games, Inc
POB 3457, Blaine
WA 98231 USA
800/636-3631 (toll free)
For game updates and discussion, see:
Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games