Julius Caesar brings the drama of the

most famous and significant Roman Civil

War (49–45 BC) to life. Players take control

of the legions of Caesar or Pompey and

fight to determine the future of Rome –

republic or empire.


The game is intended for two players.

One player represents Julius Caesar, the

other Pompey the Great.


The game is divided into five (5) Years,

each with five (5) game turns. After each

Year ends, a Winter Turn (8.0) is played

when players check to see if either has


To determine victory, after each Year,

players score the total value of Friendly

cities, plus one Victory Point (1vp) for each

enemy leader killed. To win, a player must

have 10 (or more) VPs.

If neither player wins by the end of

Year 5, the winner is the player with the

higher VPs. If still tied, the game is won

by the player holding Rome. Otherwise the

game is a draw.


• Game Map

• 63 blocks (31 tan, 31 green, 1 blue).

• Label sheet (for blocks)

• Cards (27)

• Dice (4)

• These Rules


There are five Years in the game, each

divided into five Game Turns. Each game

turn has three (3) Phases, played in the

sequence below.


There are twenty-seven (27) cards:

twenty (20) Command cards and seven

(7) Event cards. At the beginning of each

Year, the cards are shuffled and six (6)

cards are dealt to each player. Examine

your cards and discard one (1). The discard

is not revealed.

Each player starts a game turn by

playing one (1) card face-down. The cards

are then revealed. Card values are Moves

(banner) and Levies (circles on banner

staff). The player with the higher Move

card is Player 1 that game turn.

IMPORTANT: If the cards played are

equal (Move number) Caesar is Player 1.

Event cards have a special action

defined on the card. The player of an

Event card is always Player 1. However,

if both plays are Event cards, both events

are cancelled and the game turn ends.

NOTE: Players must play a card, but can

elect to take less moves/levies if desired.

Commands cannot be saved for future use.


Player 1 moves and levies (or executes

an Event), then Player 2 moves and levies.

• Move: Each move allows one Group

(any/all blocks in one location) to move

one or two cities; Navis can move one

or two seas. Blocks cannot attack or

reinforce if they move two cities/seas.

Blocks entering a city or sea containing

enemy blocks must stop. See 6.0 for


• Levy: for each Levy, one (1) step can

be added to one (1) existing block, or

one (1) new block can be chosen from

a player's Levy Pool and deployed on

the map at strength I. Choose levies

after all movement is complete – they

cannot move in the same turn. See 6.4

for details.


Battles are fought between opposing

blocks in the same city or sea. They are

fought one at a time in any sequence

determined by Player 1. See: 7.0 for details.

The Roman Calendar

Few Romans knew or cared what year it was,

but those who did counted the years from the

semi-fabled founding of Rome by Romulus in

754BC. Hence the civil war began in 705 (49bc),

and the assassination of Julius Caesar occurred

in 710 (44bc) of the Roman Calendar.

Julius Caesar established the Julian Calendar

in 709 (45bc). This Calendar corrected a two

month error in the solar cycle and established

the leap year concept to keep it accurate.

The month of July was renamed after Caesar.

With minor revisions to leap years, this is the

Calendar we still use (in the West) today.


City vps total 13. Pompey starts the game

holding 7vp while Caesar has only 1vp (Massilia).

Rome, Athens, Byzantium, and Ephesus are

Vacant. The burden of attack lies with Caesar to

avoid an early defeat.

Event Cards

The deck contains seven (7) event cards, each

of them named after a major Roman deity.

These cards allow special actions to occur that

break the normal rules. See each card for details.

Game Turn Example

•Card Play: Caesar 2/1, Pompey 2/2. Cards are

tied (compare only Moves) but Caesar is Player

1 on ties.

•Caesar (Player 1): 2 Moves then 1 Levy

•Pompey (Player 2): 2 Moves then 2 Levies

•Battle Phase: Resolve any battles in the order

chosen by Player 1.




Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games


Version 1.1



One label must be attached to the face

of each block. Lightly position each label,

ensure it is straight, and then press firmly

to the block.













3.11 Strength

The current strength of a block is the

Roman numeral on the top edge when the

block stands upright. Blocks can have a

maximum strength of IV, III, or II.

Strength determines how many six-

sided dice (d6) are rolled for a block in

combat. A block at strength IV rolls 4d6

(four six-sided dice); a block at strength I

rolls 1d6.

For each hit taken in combat, the

block’s strength is reduced by rotating the

block 90 degrees counter-clockwise. The

sidebar shows the same block at strength

III, II, and I.

3.12 Combat Rating

The Combat Rating is indicated by

a letter and number, such as A2 or B3.

The letter (initiative) determines when

a block has a battle turn. All A blocks go

first, then all B blocks, then all C blocks.

If tied, the Defender has the first battle

turn. The number (firepower) indicates the

maximum roll that will score a hit. See 7.3.

3.13 Name

Legions have a city name where this

block must be recruited when deployed

from the Levy Pool.


3.21 Leaders

Both sides have three (3)

named leaders:

Caesar, Antonius, Octavian

Pompey, Scipio, Brutus.

Leader blocks include

their significant guards,

generally elite cavalry. Players start the

game with two leaders. The third may be

brought into play if a leader is killed (see:


3.22 Legions

Legions are identified by

an Eagle icon. They have

a number ID on the top

left, and a levy city on

the bottom. Legions have

combat ratings of C2, C3,

or C4, with veteran legions having the

higher ratings.

3.23 Auxilia

Both players have four (4)

Auxilia, two light infantry

(B1) and two archers (A1).

These troops can be raised

in any Friendly city.

3.24 Equitatus

Equitatus (cavalry) are

rated B2 or B3. Like

legions, they are raised in

specific Friendly cities.

These cities have a nearby

equitatus symbol on the

map. Caesar has four (4) equitatus. Pompey

has three (3) equitatus, but also one

Elephant (7.41).

3.25 Ballista

Each player has one

(1) Ballista. They have

different combat values for

defense and offense, see

7.42. They can be built in

any Friendly city.

3.26 Navis

Players have five (5) Navis

to represent the warships

used by both sides. They

have D2 or D3 combat. In

a sea battle this "D" rating

has no impact since all

Navis have the same rating, but they are

vulnerable in land battles. Navis must be

built in Friendly major ports, identified on

the map with a Navis symbol.

3.27 Cleopatra

Cleopatra represents the

forces of Egypt and is

rated C1. She is not a

leader per these rules.

Cleopatra starts play on

the Pompey side, but can

fight for either side. See: 7.52.

Label Sheet

The red labels on the die-cut sheet are for

Caesar (tan blocks) and ochre labels for Pompey

(green blocks). The Cleopatra label goes on the

blue block.


Surprise is an exciting aspect of this game.

Except when fighting a battle, active blocks

stand upright facing the owner. This promotes

bluff and innovative strategies because players

are uncertain of the strength or identity of an

enemy block.


Romans were never considered exceptionally good

horsemen, at least not after the connection between

cavalry and the aristocracy was abandoned. By the

time of late Republic, the Equitatus was generally

made up of non-Roman horsemen from Gallia,

Germania, Hispania, Numidia, Syria, and Thracia.

Caesar used Germanic cavalry to fight the Gauls

and also to serve as his formidable bodyguard.


There is one Elephant block for Pompey. Caesar

would not have elephants in his army believing them

to be fragile and unpredictable.


Strength III Strength II

Strength I




(Maximum III)






Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games


Version 1.1


The mapboard depicts the

Mediterranean Sea and surrounding

territory. The Caesar player sits at the

north edge of the map, Pompey player at

the south edge.


Blocks on the map must be located on

cities or seas. Navis must be located on

seas or in port cities.


Cities govern the movement and

location of blocks. Eleven cities have a

value of 1 or 2. These numbers (total 13)

are Victory Points (VPs). The numbers

are also significant for Wintering (8.4).

4.21 City Control

The control status of a city can be:

Friendly: Occupied by one or more of

your blocks.

Enemy: Friendly to your opponent.

Vacant: Friendly to neither player.

Contested: Contains blocks of both

players, awaiting Battle Resolution.

IMPORTANT: Changes to city control

are effective immediately. Friendly cities

become immediately neutral when left

Vacant. Similarly, attacking an Enemy city,

even with one block, immediately converts

it to Contested status until the battle is



Cities are connected by important

roads of the period, some of them named

for historical interest. Blocks move from

one city to another via these roads.

4.31 Road Classes

Two classes of road are depicted,

Major (solid line) and Minor (dotted line).

In one game turn, four (4) blocks can move

along a Major Road, but only two (2) along

a Minor road. See 6.11.

4.32 Straits

Four straits appear on the map, each

identified by a blue arrow: Herculeum,

Messana, Hellespontus, and Bosphorus.

Each game turn, two (2) land blocks may

cross each strait, but only one (1) land

block when the city on the other side is


Navis ignore straits when moving from

one sea to an adjacent sea. Control of

cities on either side of a strait has no effect

on Navis or Amphibious movement.

4.4 Seas

There are nine (9) seas: Atlanticus,

Hispanum, Tyrrhenum, Internum,

Hadriaticum, Egypticum, Aegaeum, Propontis,

and Pontus Euxinus. These seas can only be

occupied and controlled by Navis.

Friendly: Seas occupied by one or

more of your Navis.

Enemy: Seas occupied by one or more

enemy Navis.

Vacant: Friendly to neither player.

Contested: Seas containing Navis of

both players, awaiting Battle Resolution.

SEA CONTROL: As with cities, changes

to sea control are effective immediately. A

sea immediately becomes neutral when it

is left Vacant.

4.41 Islands

The islands of Corsica, Sardinia, Sicilia,

Creta, and Cyprus are playable. All other

islands are unplayable. Moves to-from

playable islands requires a Navis or

Amphibious Move (6.3).

4.42 Ports

All cities located on a coastline are

ports. Some ports have a Navis symbol

that designates a major port, which are

essential for building Navis.

Ports located on sea borders allow

access to two (2) seas. Utica and Creta

have access to three (3) seas. See

sidebar for clarification.

Battle Sites

The main battles of the war are shown on the

map, red for victories by Caesar and green for



Below is a list of ports and their adjacent seas.

Major ports are indicated in Caps.


Atlanticus: Burdigala, Gades, Olisipo, Portus,

Sala, Tingis.

Hispanum: Caralis, Carthago Nova, Genua,

Iomnium, Massilia, Narbo, Siga,

Tarraco, Tingis, Utica.

Tyrrhenum: Aleria, Caralis, Genua, Lilybaeum,

Messana, Neapolis, Rhegium,

Rome, Utica.

Internum: Ambracia, Brundisium, Creta,

Cyrene, Lilybaeum, Messana,

Pylos, Rhegium, Syracuse,

Tacape, Thubactus, Utica.

Hadriaticum: Aquileia, Brundisium,

Dyrrachium, Ravenna, Salone,


Aegaeum: Aenos, Athena, Creta, Ephesus,


Propontis: Byzantium, Nicomedia.

Euxinus: Byzantium, Sinope.

Egypticum: Alexandria, Antioch,

Catabathmus, Creta, Perga,

Pelusium, Salamis, Tarsus.

Event Cards

Apollo: the trickster Sun God grants you the

power to copy the card played by your

opponent last turn. If that card was an event

card, it copies that card exactly.

Jupiter: the King of the Gods grants you a

defection of one enemy block adjacent

to a friendly city. Navis at sea could be

chosen, but note that Leaders and Navis do

not defect. They are reduced by one step.

Cleopatra is not a leader and can defect

using this card.

Mars: the God of War grants a surprise attack.

All attacking blocks in one battle get to fire

before any defending blocks in Round 1.

Caution: the Defender may get two fires in a

row (last in Round 1 and first in Round 2).

Mercury: the Messenger of the Gods allows

blocks in one group to move one extra city.

Blocks can move in multiple directions, and

use the bonus (or not) as desired.

Neptune: the God of the Sea favors your sea

battle or shore attack. This is essentially a

"Mars" card for ships.

Pluto: The God of Death likes big battles.

He allows road limits to be increased for

one Group Move, but not for Regroups or


Vulcan: Reduces all blocks in a designated city

by one step. No exceptions. All blocks at

strength I, including leaders, are eliminated.

Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games


Version 1.1




Both players deploy blocks in cities as

noted. Blocks are always deployed upright

at full strength.


Each player maintains a Levy Pool

off-map. Blocks in the Levy Pool stand

upright to conceal their identity. Players

expend Levy Points to deploy blocks from

their pool to the map. Except for Leaders

(see 7.51) blocks that are eliminated during

play are returned to the Levy Pool, but are

always placed face-up until the current

Year ends. These blocks cannot be levied

until the next Year.


An optional deployment method.

Players deploy blocks as per historical OB,

but may swap any blocks on the map as

long as the original number of deployed

blocks in each city is maintained. Blocks

from the Friendly Levy Pool cannot be


EXAMPLE: In the historical OB, Pompey

has three (3) blocks in Neapolis. For free

deployment, any three blocks from the

historical deployment can be there.

CAESAR, 705 (49 BC)

Caesar: Ravenna

Legio 13: Ravenna

Navis 2: Ravenna

Antonius: Genua

Legio 8: Genua

Legio 12: Genua

Legio 11: Massilia

Legio 14: Massilia

Navis 1: Massilia

Legio 7: Narbo

Legio 9: Narbo

Legio 10: Narbo

Legio 16: Lugdunum

Equitatus 1: Lugdunum



Legio 17, 18, 19, 20, 21

Auxilia 1, 2, 3, 4

Equitatus 2, 3, 4


Navis 3, 4, 5

POMPEY, 705 (49 BC)

Pompey: Neapolis

Legio 1: Neapolis

Navis 1: Neapolis

Legio 3: Brundisium

Legio 37: Syracuse

Scipio: Antioch

Legio 34: Antioch

Cleopatra: Alexandria

Navis 2: Alexandria

Legio 39: Utica

Navis 3: Utica

Legio 2: Carthago Nova

Legio 4: Carthago Nova

Legio 5: Tarraco

Legio 6: Tarraco

Equitatus 1: Tarraco



Legio 32, 33, 35, 36, 38

Auxilia 1, 2, 3, 4

Equitatus 2, 3, Elephant


Navis 4, 5

Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games


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Player 1 Moves and then Levies with

the values from his active card, then Player

2 does the same.


Command cards have Move Points

(MP) of 1 to 4. Each MP allows any/

all block(s) in one location (city or sea)

to move to adjacent cities/seas. If not

attacking, blocks may continue to the next

adjacent location(s).

Blocks that move cannot move

again this game turn, except to Retreat

or Regroup. When a block has finished

moving, turn it face-down to show that it

cannot move again this turn.

6.11 Road Limits

The maximum number of blocks that

can move along any road varies by type:

Major: 4 blocks

Minor: 2 blocks

Straits: 2 blocks (1 if attacking)

Example: A maximum of 4 blocks may

move from Genua to Rome, and one or two

blocks may move from Ravenna to Rome.

Road Limits apply to each player.

Hence, both players can move two blocks

along the same minor road in the same

game turn.

Example: Player 1 moves 4 blocks from

Massilia to Genua to Ravenna. Player 2

now moves 4 blocks from Rome to Genua

to Massilia. Both players used the road

section between Massilia and Genua, but

at different times. Of course, if Player 1

had left at least 1 block in Genua, Player 2

could not have moved through this block to

Massilia without fighting a battle.

6.12 Attacking

Blocks entering an Enemy city/sea

are Attacking; the enemy blocks are


Blocks may attack from adjacent

cities/seas only. A player may attack via

two or more roads, but each road will

require a separate MP. See 6.2 and 7.3.

6.13 Pinning

Attacking blocks (excluding Reserves)

prevent an equal number of defending

blocks from moving. The Defender

chooses which blocks are pinned. The

"unpinned" blocks may move normally and

even attack, but cannot use any road or

sea border used by the enemy that battle.

6.14 Response Movement

Player 2 can expend MPs to move

unpinned blocks to reinforce Defending

blocks in Contested cities/seas. Blocks can

Respond only from adjacent cities/seas.

IMPORTANT: Responding blocks are

always placed in Reserve. See: 7.3.

6.15 Stacking

There is no stacking limit for blocks

during a Year. Stacking applies during the

Winter Turn. See 8.4.


Navis move from a port to an adjacent

sea (or vice-versa), or from one sea to an

adjacent sea. They can never move from

one port directly to another port, except

via the adjacent sea.

When located with land blocks, Navis

can move to sea as part of a group move

for that city. See: Navis Move Examples.

Navis can make one (1) move and

attack, or two (2) moves and not attack.

See sidebar for examples.

Navis can attack/respond only from

an adjacent sea/port. See Battle Reserves

(7.3) for more details about attacking and



Land blocks may move from one port

to any other Friendly or Vacant port

across one or more adjacent Friendly

seas. Cost is 1 MP per block.

Amphibious movement must be made

before any other moves are made that

turn. Hence, a sea used in amphibious

movement must already be Friendly before

any other moves are made that turn.

Blocks cannot move by land and sea

in the same turn (or vice-versa). 1 Navis

block must remain in the sea that was

crossed for the entire Command Phase;

other Navis may move as desired.

Amphibious moves can never be made

to Enemy or Contested ports. Unpinned

(6.13) land blocks in a Contested city may

conduct an amphibious move provided the

adjacent sea is Friendly.

Move Example

For 1mp, a player may move any/all Massilia

blocks to one or more of Narbo, Lugdunum, and

Genua. If not attacking, blocks can move further

to any/all of Tarraco, Burdigala, Cenabum,

Treveri, Ravenna, or Rome. If some of the

Massilia blocks are Navis, they can move to

Mare Hispanum, then to an adjacent sea or port

if not attacking.

Movement & Attacking

Blocks can move only one city/sea when they

attack. This has many subtle implications. For

example, assuming 6 Caesar blocks located in

Massila and 3 Pompey blocks in Tarraco and

3 in Genua. The Caesar blocks cannot attack

Tarraco since that is two moves away. Genua

is adjacent and can therefore be attacked with

4 Caesar blocks (road limit). Unlike many

other games, however, the remaining 2 Caesar

blocks cannot also attack Genua via Lugdunum

since that would be a move of two cities. Note

however, the effect of the Mercury card which

could allow an attack on Tarraco, and/or a

two-pronged attack on Genua.

Pinning Example

Five (5) blocks defend Rome. Four (4) blocks

attack from Genua and two (2) from Ravenna,

the latter being reserves. Assuming the Genua

blocks are the Main Attack, a total of 4 blocks

in Rome are pinned, but 1 is unpinned and may

move except via the two roads being used by

the Attacker.


The function of Navis are to win control of a

Sea to enable amphibious movement. They can

also attack and occupy enemy ports, or occupy

Vacant ports.

Navis Move Examples

1. Navis located in Massilia can move to a

Friendly or Vacant Mare Hispanum. If not

attacking, the Navis can then move to Oceanus

Atlanticus, or Mare Tyrrhenum, or to any other

Friendly or Vacant port on Mare Hispanum

(Utica, Caralis, Iomnium, Siga, Tingis, Carthago

Nova, Tarraco, Narbo, and Genua).

2. Navis located on Mare Internum can move

to Mare Tyrrhenum, Mare Hadriaticum, Mare

Aegaeum, or Mare Egypticum. If not attacking, a

Navis that moved to Mare Aegaeum could move

to another adjacent Friendly or Vacant sea

(Propontis or Mare Egypticum) or to any Friendly

or Vacant port on this sea, (Creta, Athena,

Thessalonika, Aenos, or Ephesus). Note that the

city of Pergamum is not a port.

Amphibious Move Example

Caesar has 3 Navis, 1 each on Mare Tyrrhenum,

Mare Internum, and Mare Egypticum. He elects to

spend 2mp to make an amphibious move of two

legions from Rome to Antioch, which is Vacant.

This is possible because the three seas crossed

are Friendly and adjacent, and the amphibious

move is made before any other move. Note that

an Amphibious move by Player 1 is completed

in the Command Phase, before Player 2 moves.

Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games


Version 1.1



Command cards have 1, 2, or 3 Levy

Points (LP). Each LP allows:

• One (1) step to be added to one (1)

existing block. Multiple steps can be

added to the same block, each for LP1.

• One (1) new block can be chosen from

a player's Levy Pool and deployed in

a city at minimum strength. Steps can

be added to a new block immediately,

each step costing LP1 (including the

elephant). Multiple new blocks can be

deployed in the same city if desired.

Leaders deploy in any Friendly city.

Legions deploy in their named city,

which must be Friendly.

Equitatae/Elephant deploy in their

named city, which must be Friendly.

Auxilia/Ballista deploy in any

Friendly city.

Navis deploy in any Friendly major

port. Steps can be added to existing

Navis in any port, but never at sea.

IMPORTANT: In all cases, new blocks

and steps must be raised in Friendly cities,

meaning a city currently occupied by at

least one Friendly block. New blocks and

steps can never be added to Vacant or

Contested cities.



Battles are fought one by one after all

moves are completed. Player 1 determines

which battle to fight first. Blocks are not

revealed until a battle is fought. Reveal

blocks (not Reserves) by tipping them

forward at current strength. After the battle

is completed, stand all blocks upright, then

Player 1 selects the next battle.


Each block has one battle turn per

Battle Round. In its turn, a block may

either Fire, Retreat, or Pass, except

Retreat is not allowed in Round 1.

The sequence of turns depends on

combat ratings. “A” blocks go before “B”

blocks, then “C” blocks, then "D" blocks.

Defending “A” blocks go before Attacking

“A” blocks, and so on.

After all blocks have taken one Battle

Turn, one Round has been fought. Battles

are fought for a maximum of four (4)

Rounds. Attacking blocks must retreat

during Round 4 in their normal battle turn.


When attacking via two or more roads

or sea borders, one road/border (Attacker

choice) must be declared the Main

Attack. Blocks using other roads/borders

are Reserves.

Blocks moved by Player 2 to reinforce

a battle started by Player 1 are also


Reserve blocks may not fire, retreat,

or take hits in Round 1. They are revealed

and arrive at the start of Round 2 to take

normal turns.

Example: Caesar attacks Tarraco

from Narbo with 4 blocks (main attack)

and from Bilbilis with 2 blocks. Pompey

has 3 blocks defending Tarraco, but

moves 4 blocks from Nova Carthago to

Tarraco. Round 1 has the 3 Tarraco blocks

defending against 4 Caesar blocks from

Narbo. Caesar blocks from Bilbilis and

Pompey blocks from Nova Carthago are

Reserves that arrive for Round 2.

7.31 Disruption

Reserve blocks are Disrupted if

their main force is eliminated in Round 1.

Disrupted blocks immediately lose one (1)

step and then fight normally.

IMPORTANT: If the disrupted player is

the Defender, the Attacker now becomes the

Defender for the rest of the battle.

7.4 Battle HITS

Each firing block in its Battle Turn rolls

as many dice as its current strength. A hit

is scored for each die roll equal to or lower

than the block’s firepower.

Example: Caesar 3 rolls 3 dice. He has

A3 combat: rolls of 1, 2, 3 are hits.

Each hit reduces the strongest enemy

block at that instant. When two or more

blocks share the highest strength, the

owner chooses which to reduce. Except for

Leaders, when blocks are reduced below

strength I, they are immediately eliminated

(see 7.5) and returned to the Levy Pool.

Note: combat is not simultaneous. All

hits are applied immediately.

7.41 Elephant

The elephant block has two steps, IV

and II. It drops one step per hit which

means the block is powerful but fragile.

7.42 Ballista

The Ballista block fights at B4 when

Defending, but at D4 when Attacking.

Battle Sequence

Battle sequence (7.1) is controlled by Player

1. This can be significant because the results

of a battle will change city or sea control from

Contested to Friendly for the victor and that

impacts Retreats and Regroups.

Battle Turns

Caesar (A3) and Equitatus (B2) attack Pompey

(B3) and Navis (D2). Battle Turn sequence:

Caesar: attacking A3

Pompey: defending B3

Caesar Equitatus: attacking B2

Pompey Navis: defending D2


Because both players move before combat, a

player can be the Defender in some battles, and

the Attacker in others.

Battle Hits

Each hit reduces the strongest enemy block at

that instant. Hence, if two hits are scored on

three enemy blocks at strength III, II, II, the first

hit must be taken on the enemy III block. All

three blocks are now at strength II, so the next

hit can be on any enemy block (owner choice).


Pursuit is naturally handled by the game system.

A block wishing to retreat must await its normal

battle turn which allows faster enemy troops

to fire before they can retreat. If the Defender

survives three Battle Rounds, the Attacker

must retreat during round 4, but takes fire from

defending blocks that have an equal or earlier

battle turn.


Several legions switched sides during the war,

This is represented by the Jupiter card, which

switches one block to the enemy side. Even the

famous 13th legion, which crossed the Rubicon

with Caesar, later rebelled and changed sides.

Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games


Version 1.1



Eliminated blocks are returned to their

owner's Levy Pool, but are placed face-up

(in front of the upright blocks) and cannot be

levied again this Year.

7.51 Leaders

Leaders are permanently eliminated.

Give the block as a "trophy" to the enemy

player, who counts it as 1vp.

When a player loses a leader, the

third leader is added to the Levy Pool and

becomes available to be built and deployed

(normal cost) in any Friendly city.

7.52 Cleopatra

Cleopatra can fight for either side. If

eliminated in battle she immediately joins

the other side at strength I and fights for

that side on her next battle turn.

During each Winter turn, she must

return to Alexandria. See 8.1.

7.6 Retreats

Each block may retreat on its Battle

Turn (instead of firing), except blocks can

never retreat on Battle Round 1. Blocks

that cannot retreat when required are


7.61 Retreat Limits

Road Limits (6.11) apply to all

retreating blocks each Battle Round.

Blocks can never retreat to Enemy or

Contested cities/seas.

Retreating across a strait has a limit of

one (1) block per round.

7.62 Attacker Retreats

Attacking blocks can retreat on their

battle turn starting in Round 2 and must

retreat during Round 4. Blocks may Retreat

to an adjacent Vacant city via road(s) used

to start or reinforce the battle, or to any

Friendly adjacent cities.

7.63 Defender Retreats

Defending blocks can retreat on their

battle turn starting on Round 2. Retreat is

made to any adjacent cities, Friendly or

Vacant, but not along roads used by the

Attacker to enter the battle.

7.64 Sea Retreats

Players can retreat land blocks by

sea provided an adjacent sea is Friendly.

A maximum of one (1) block per Battle

Round can Sea Retreat. The destination

port must be Friendly. Each block can Sea

Retreat across one (1) adjacent sea, to a

Friendly port(s) on that same sea only.

If both players have an adjacent and

Friendly sea and a Friendly destination,

both can sea retreat.

EXAMPLE: with a battle in Utica, if one

player has a Navis on Mare Internum, and

the other has a Navis on Mare Hispanum,

both players can Sea Retreat via their own

Friendly sea.


When a battle ends the victor may

Regroup. All victorious blocks (including

any in Reserve) can move to any adjacent

city that is currently Friendly or Vacant.

Road Limits (6.11) apply.

Amphibious Movement cannot be

used to Regroup.


When enemy Navis occupy the same

sea a Navis battle occurs. Navis have D2

or D3 combat, Defender first. As with land

battles, the attacker must retreat during

Round 4 if any defending ships remain.

7.81 Shore Combat

Navis can also be involved in battles

ashore in ports, either as the Attacker

or Defender. Navis can attack from an

adjacent sea only.

7.82 Navis Retreats

Navis may retreat in their normal "D"

battle turn, starting in Round 2.

Attacking Navis Retreat to:

• Seas or Ports they came from, provided

these locations are still Friendly or

Vacant, or

• Friendly adjacent seas, or

• Friendly ports on the same sea.

Defending Navis Retreat to:

• Friendly adjacent seas, or

• Vacant adjacent seas except where

the Attacker came from, or

• Friendly port on the same sea.

If no Retreat is possible, Navis must

win the fight or perish.

7.83 Navis Regroups

Navis that win a sea battle can

Regroup to any adjacent sea that is

Friendly or Vacant, or to any Friendly or

Vacant port on the same sea.


60 BC: First Triumvirate formed between Caesar,

Crassius, and Pompey. Caesar is made proconsul

of Gaul, Cisalpine Gaul, and Illyricum, commanding

four legions. Pompey is made proconsul of

Hispania, and Crassius proconsul of Syria.

53 BC: Crassius is killed fighting in Parthia ending

the First Triumvirate. Pompey governs Hispania

from Rome while Caesar fights in Gaul.

52 BC: Caesar commands ten legions and defeats

Vercingetorix at Alesia, ending the Gallic Wars.

Cato, Pompey, and Scipio lead a Senate faction

opposed to Caesar's "populist policies". The Senate

demands Caesar disband and return to Rome to

answer charges of "war crimes". Caesar refuses to

disband arguing he is proconsul of Gaul until 49BC.

50 BC: Caesar now has nine veteran legions, 3000

cavalry, and a 900 man bodyguard. Pompey has

seven legions in Hispania, two in Italia, and two

in Syria and Africa. Pompey has naval superiority.

Senate declares Caesar an enemy of the state.

49 BC: Caesar crosses Rubicon with XIII Legion

in January. Pompey retreats from Rome to

Brundisium. Caesar besieges Brundisium, but

Pompey escapes by ship to Greece. Caesar now

marches to Spain, where he forces five Pompey

Legions to surrender at Llerda.

48 BC: Caesar and Antonius assemble five legions

at Brundisium and ship them to Greece. The

Battle of Dyrrachium is fought in July, ending

with a Pompey victory. Caesar retreats but then

wins a decisive victory at Pharsalus in Thessaly.

Pompey flees to Egypt where he is assassinated by

command of Ptolemy XIII. Caesar now becomes

involved in a civil war between Ptolemy XIII and

his sister Cleopatra VII. Caesar supports Cleopatra

and defeats Ptolemy XIII who drowns in the Nile.

47 BC: Caesar attacks into Syria and Pontus,

defeating Pharnaces II, a petty king who took

advantage of the Roman Civil War to expand his

power. Pharnaces is crushed at Battle of Zela, said

to be the origin of the famous phrase "Veni, Vidi,

Vici" (I came, I saw, I conquered).

46 BC: Battle of Thapsus. Caesar invades Africa

with 10 legions and defeats Scipio's 14 legions.

Scipio & Cato take their own lives. Pompey's son,

Sextus Pompey, escapes to Hispania to continue

the war.

45 BC: Battle of Munda. Caesar invades Hispania

by sea with 8 legions. He defeats Sextus (13 legions)

who is killed, ending the war.

44 BC: On the Ides of March, Caesar is

assassinated in a conspiracy arranged by Brutus

and Cassius. The assassins flee Rome; Antonius and

Octavian assume command.

42 BC: Battle of Phillipi. Octavian and Antonius

defeat Brutus and Cassius, who both commit

suicide. Eleven years later, the two victors fight for

supremacy, a struggle that Octavian wins at Actium

to become Augustus, the first Emperor of Imperial


Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games


Version 1.1



A Year ends when all five (5) cards

have been played. A Winter Turn now

occurs during which players determine if

either has won. Play the winter events in

the exact order given.


Move Cleopatra to Alexandria. If

enemy-occupied, she joins that side

immediately at her current strength.


Determine if one player has won.

See: 1.2.


Move all Navis to a Friendly port on

the same sea (Caesar first). Navis unable

to move to a Friendly port are disbanded,

but can be rebuilt in the upcoming Year.


All cities can supply in winter a

maximum of three (3) blocks without

penalty. This limit is increased by the city

value if any. Hence, Genua can support 3

blocks, Massila can support 3+1=4, and

Rome can support 3+2=5.

Each surplus block (owner choice) is

disbanded to the Friendly Levy Pool, but

can be rebuilt in the upcoming Year.


Players cannot merge blocks on the

map. They may disband any block (except

Cleopatra) to their Levy Pool. Steps on

disbanded blocks are forfeit, but they can

be rebuilt in the upcoming Year.


All face-up blocks in Levy Pools stand-

up and are available to be recruited in the

upcoming Year.

Shuffle all 27 cards and deal six (6)

cards to each player. Examine your cards

and discard one (1). The discard is not



Game Design:

Justin Thompson

Grant Dalgliesh


Tom Dalgliesh


Karim Chakroun

Mark Churms


Mark Adams

Bill Alderman

Clayton Baisch

Kevin Duke

Stan Hilinski

Steve Koleszar

Gerald Lientz

Stuart Pierce

Dave Platnick

Bill Powers

Bruce Reiff

George Seary


Amphibious Movement



3.25, 7.42


2.3, 7.0






















3.27, 7.52, 8.1

Combat Rating






Free Deployment














Game Turns





1.2, 3.21, 7.51


2.3, 6.4

Levy Pool




Group Move


Navis Move


Amphibious Move




Navis Move


Navis Battles


Navis Wintering





4.42, 6.3



Navis Regroups






Attacker Retreats


Defender Retreats


Navis Retreats


Retreat Limits


Sea Retreats




Major & Minor Roads


Sea Moves






Supply (Winter)






Columbia Games, Inc

POB 3457, Blaine

WA 98231 USA


800/636-3631 (toll free)

For game updates and discussion, see:


Copyright © 2010 Columbia Games


Version 1.1