Hammer of the Scots is a game of the

Scottish Wars of Independence. One player

plays the Scots, the other, the English. The

object is to control a majority of nobles

when a game ends.

There are two scenarios, Braveheart

(1297–1305) and The Bruce (1306–1314).

Each can be played as a separate game.

There is also a campaign game that

extends over both periods.


The game is played in a series of years

starting with either 1297 or 1306. Within

each year are 1-5 Game Turns. Each Game

Turn has three (3) phases, played in the

sequence given.

[1] Card Phase (3.0)

Both players start every year with five

(5) cards. They each play one (1) card

face-down. The cards are then revealed

and the higher card becomes Player 1 (first

move). Ties go to the English player.

[2] Move Phase (4.0)

Move Cards allow 1-3 Group Moves.

All friendly blocks in one area are a Group

(except Norse, 4.7). Depending on Move

Rate, blocks may move 2 or 3 areas per

Move Phase, but must stop upon crossing

a red border or upon entering an enemy-

occupied area. Player 1 completes all

movement, then Player 2 moves.

[3] Battle Phase (5.0)

Battles occur when enemy blocks are

located in the same area. They are fought

one by one in a sequence determined by

Player 1.

After all battles are fought, repeat steps

[1] to [3] until the Year ends.


After each year ends, a Winter Turn is

played where nobles return home (perhaps

to switch sides) and blocks in excess of

Castle Limits (1.2) disband. Then players

receive Replacements. Shuffle the entire

deck and deal 5 new cards to each player.


The mapboard depicts Scotland and

northern England. The English player sits

at the southern edge of the mapboard, the

Scottish player at the northern edge.


The map is divided into areas to

govern the location and movement of

blocks. These areas are divided by green

or red borders which restrict movement

(see 4.3). Where there is no border - for

instance, between Carrick and Argyll, or

between Lothian and Fife - then blocks

cannot move between those areas.


Areas have a Castle Limit of 0-3.

Castle Limits reflect the economic value

of an area, more than the strength of a

particular castle. Some of the areas shown

actually contained a dozen or more castles.

Castle Limits define how many blocks can

remain in an area over the winter and also

equal the annual value of replacement

steps in the area.


Three areas (Strathspey, Lennox, and

Fife) contain a cathedral. The Scottish

church, with strong Celtic influences,

staunchly supported the rebellion. A

cathedral adds [+1] to the Castle Limit for

the Scots, but has no value to the English.

For example, Fife is worth [3] to the Scots,

but only [2] to the English. The Scots

King may move to a Friendly or Neutral

cathedral during the Winter Turn.


The home areas for all fourteen (14)

Scottish nobles are indicated on the

map by their heraldic shields. Hence, the

heraldry on the Buchan block matches the

heraldry on the Buchan area.

Nobles have a combat advantage

(B2=B3) when they defend their home

areas. The bonus applies even if they

arrive as reserves or defect during battle.

Nobles do not have a combat advantage

while they are attacking their Home Area.

Bruce and Comyn have two Home

Areas. Bruce has Annan and Carrick.

Comyn has Badenoch and Lochaber. Both

Home Areas offer the same defensive

advantage. Also see 7.12.

Rulebook Organization

This rulebook is formatted so that the sidebar

(this column) contains definitions, examples,

suggestions, optional rules, clarifications, and

historical commentary to help you understand

and enjoy this game.


Surprise is an exciting aspect of Hammer of

the Scots. Except when fighting a battle, active

blocks stand upright facing the owner. This

promotes bluff and innovative strategies

because players are uncertain of the strength or

identity of an enemy block.

Hammer of the Scots

Edward I directed that his tomb in Westminster

Abbey be inscribed with the epitaph Scottorurm

Malleus - “Hammer of the Scots.” Edward certainly

intended to hammer the Scots into submission, but

his blows served instead to forge a proud nation.

How the War Started

The Scottish Wars of Independence were actually

triggered by events in Europe. In 1294, France

managed through duplicity to seize control of the

Duchy of Gascony, a major province nominally

a part of France but retained by Edward I. War

ensued, and the Scottish nobles, chafing under the

humiliating rule of Edward I through his puppet

- King John Balliol of Scotland - eagerly agreed to

make common cause with the French.

Edward I, caught off guard by this uncharacteristic

display of Scottish defiance, delayed his invasion

of Flanders and moved to settle the rebellion north

of the Tweed. But King Philip failed to live up

to his side of the agreement - which called for an

invasion of England should Edward move against

Scotland - and the struggle did not last long. After

a brutal siege and massacre of half the population

of Berwick - Scotland’s largest town at the time

– Edward moved north to Dunbar. An attempt to

break the siege of Dunbar ended with disaster when

the smaller English force routed the Scots.

With the imprisonment of most of the Scottish

nobility - including King John Balliol - and the

complete annexation of Scotland by the English

crown, Edward thought the affair over. He

haughtily remarked upon leaving Scotland in 1296

that it was "good to be rid of shit.” He would not be

rid of the Scots for long.

Towns and Battle Sites

Most areas show important towns of the period.

These are shown for historical interest only and

do not affect game play. The main battles of the

war are also shown.

Copyright ©2002-19 Jerry Taylor & Columbia Games Inc.


Version 4.0



The wooden blocks represent English

(red) and Scottish (blue) forces.

A sheet of die-cut labels is included.

One label must be attached to the face of

each block. Scottish labels go on the blue

blocks; English labels go on the red blocks.

Lightly position each label, ensure it is

straight, and then press firmly to the block.

The blocks add surprise and secrecy

to the game. When standing upright,

block type and strength is hidden from the



Blocks have numbers and symbols

defining movement and combat abilities.

2.11 Strength

The current strength of a block is the

number of pips on the top edge when

the block is standing upright. Strength

determines how many six-sided dice (d6)

are rolled by a block in combat. A block at

strength 4 rolls 4d6 (four six-sided dice); a

block at strength 1 rolls 1d6.

Blocks vary in strength from 1 to 4.

Some blocks have a maximum strength 4,

some strength 3 or 2 steps. For each hit

taken in combat, the block’s strength is

reduced by rotating the block 90 degrees

counter-clockwise. The sidebar shows the

same block at strength 3, 2 and 1.

2.12 Combat Rating

The Combat Rating is indicated by a

letter and number, such as A1 or B2. The

letter determines when a block attacks. All

A blocks attack first, then all B blocks, then

all C blocks. The number indicates the

maximum roll that will score a hit.

EXAMPLE: A block rated B1 only scores

a hit for each “1” rolled, but a block rated

B3 scores one hit for each 1, 2, or 3 rolled.

2.13 Move Rating

A block's Move Rating (either 2 or 3)

is indicated on its lower-left corner. This is

the maximum number of areas the block

may move per turn.


2.21 Leaders

The Scots have two leader

blocks, Wallace and the King.

The English have one leader

block (Edward) who represents

Edward I until 1307 and then

Edward II. Leaders are normal

combat blocks, but have Move

3 and other advantages.

See: 6.0.

2.22 Nobles

There are fourteen (14)

Nobles, (including Moray) each

identified by their heraldic

arms. Nobles with green pips

are loyal to the Bruce faction.

Nobles with yellow pips are

loyal to the Comyn faction.

IMPORTANT: Each noble (except Moray)

has two blocks, one red and one blue.

Only one block is in play at a time: the

Red version when that noble supports the

English, and the Blue version when that

noble supports the Scots. Control of nobles

is the main victory condition in the game.

2.23 Archers

Archers are identified by a

small shield and cross of

arrows. English and Welsh

archers are rated B3 and the Scots B2.

2.24 Knights

English knights have the Cross

of St. George on a shield

and a combat rating of B3.

The Scots have one block of

French knights rated B3 who

enter the game under special

rules (7.61). Both sides also

have one block of light cavalry

rated B1 (Scots Keith) and A2 (English


2.25 Infantry

Most infantry are rated C2,

but some of them are C3.

English infantry, identified

by a Cross of St. George, are

named after their counties.

The English also have one

Welsh (red dragon) and Ulster

(green cross) infantry. Scottish

Infantry, named after prominent clans,

have the Cross of St. Andrew on an oval


2.26 Norse

The Norse block represents

possible intervention by

Norsemen who controlled

much of the area north of Ross, including

the Orkney and Shetland Islands. Warlike

clans of Norse origin also ranged from

the Outer Hebrides. The block has an

A2 combat rating and special movement

abilities and limitations. See 4.7.




















































(see 4.7)











* 5 of the infantry blocks are C3.

Nobles have a B3 combat rating

defending their Home Area, even if

they moved there this Game Turn or

defected during battle.


Strength 3

Strength 2

Strength 1



(Maximum 3)

Yellow pips indicate Comyn Faction





Copyright ©2002-19 Jerry Taylor & Columbia Games Inc.


Version 4.0



The deck has twenty (20) Move and

five (5) Event cards. At the beginning of

each Year, all the cards are shuffled and

five are dealt out face-down to each player.

Players may then examine their cards.


Both players start a Game Turn by

playing one card face-down. The cards

are then revealed and the higher card

determines Player 1 for that Game Turn

(English win ties).

3.11 Move Cards

Move Cards allow one, two, or three Group

Moves according to card value.

3.12 Event Cards

Event cards give a special action

as noted on the card. Event cards are

resolved first. The player of an Event card

is Player 1.

If both players play an Event card,

both events are resolved (English player

first) and then the year ends.


Players must play a card, but may do

nothing if desired. Moves cannot be saved.

Blocks may pass through vacant areas

or friendly blocks, but must stop if they

enter an area containing enemy block(s).

Blocks only move once per Game

Turn, except to Retreat or Regroup.


Card values determine play order each

Game Turn. The higher card is Player 1

who must play first. English win ties.


All friendly blocks in one area are a

Group (except Norse, 4.7). A player may

move as many Groups as the card played.

Hence, a Card 3 allows up to three Groups

to move. A player can move any number

of blocks in a Group to one or more areas

within their Move Rating (2.13).

EXAMPLE: A group of 4 blocks in

Buchan may move to Angus, Mar,

Badenoch, and/or Strathspey. Blocks can

continue if they have sufficient movement

and have not crossed a red border.


There are two border colors: Green

and Red. A maximum of six (6) blocks

can cross a Green border, and two (2) can

cross a Red border per Movement Phase.

Blocks crossing a red border must stop.

Border Limits are applied to each

player – hence, both players can move two

blocks across the same red border.

EXAMPLE: If 6 Scots blocks in Buchan

move to Angus, 2 Scots blocks in Strathspey

cannot also move to Angus. However, two

Scottish blocks in Mar could move to Angus.


The Anglo-Scottish Border is a dashed

red or green line. Each Group Move

allows only one (1) block to cross the

border (but they still fight as one group if

attacking the same area). Thus, a 3-card

allows 3 blocks to cross the border.

Blocks must stop if they cross the

red dashed border into Teviot. Blocks

entering England must always stop.

See also: Retreats/Regroups (5.5) and

Border Raids (5.9).


Areas can be Friendly, Neutral,

Contested, or Enemy controlled. Changes

to area control are effective immediately.

Friendly: solely occupied by your blocks.

Enemy: occupied by opponent's blocks.

Contested: unresolved battles.

Neutral: vacant areas.


In Contested areas, attacking blocks

(including Reserves) prevent an equal

number of defending blocks from moving.

Player 2 chooses which blocks are

pinned. The "unpinned" blocks may move

normally and/or attack, except they

cannot cross borders controlled by the

enemy (See 5.5).

EXAMPLE: Six blocks occupy Buchan.

They are attacked by 3 blocks from Angus

and 2 blocks from Strathspey. A total of

5 blocks are pinned, but 1 may move (via

Badenoch or Mar only).


The Norse block moves and attacks

separately from other blocks. It requires

1 Group Move to move all by itself. The

Norse move by sea from a coastal area to

any other coastal area and may attack.

The Norse may Retreat or Regroup to

any Friendly (not vacant) coastal area.

The Norse can never enter England or

use the Sea Move Card.

IMPORTANT: A Norse move must be

declared (both the origin and destination).

They move directly to the chosen coastal

area; no borders are crossed.

Border Movement Example

The English play a Movement 2, which allows

two (2) blocks to move across the Anglo-

Scottish border. They move into Annan (vacant)

and continue to attack into Galloway. Both

English blocks arrive on Round 1 of the battle.

Black borders in earlier editions

The green borders on the map were black in

earlier editions of the game. Green and black

borders have the same limit (6 blocks).

Card Play

Players may choose to pass when playing an

event card but, like movement, effects cannot

be saved for future use. Players may examine

the cards their opponent has played this year.

The Black Douglas

One of the most romanticized figures of the war was

James “The Black” Douglas, a ferocious warrior,

daring guerrilla, and brilliant field commander who

terrorized the enemy.

The stuff of Douglas’ character was inherited

from his father, the crusty Sir William Douglas.

William was contemptuous of King John Balliol’s

supplication to the English crown and one of the few

Scots never to bow to Edward. An early comrade of

Wallace, Douglas was captured after the debacle at

Irvine and died in the Tower of London in 1299.

His son was to avenge his death in spades. One of

the Bruce’s most trusted lieutenants, James Douglas

proved his worth not only on the battlefield but

during sieges as well. Douglas was adept at finding

means of entry into even the best defended castles

and fortresses, and was legendary for savage

reprisals on garrison troops who fell into his hands.

On his deathbed Bruce asked Douglas to carry

his heart into battle in the Holy Land where it

could witness the defeat of the enemies of God.

Accordingly, Douglas and a large company of

Scottish knights set sail for Castile in 1330 where

King Alfonso XI was conducting a campaign against

the Moors of Grenada. Douglas, bearing Bruce’s

heart, was given command of an army at Tebas

de Ardales on March 25. There, he and most of his

men were slain after being cut-off from the main

body of troops. The Moors finally accomplished

what the English could not.

Norse in Battle

Because the Norse moves and attacks separately

from other blocks, it is either the Main Attacker

(alone), or joins the attack as a Reserve.

Norse moves must be declared because they do

not close any borders for the English player.

Because area control changes immediately

Norse retreat options may change due to the

outcome of other battles or even due to other

retreating blocks in the same battle.

Copyright ©2002-19 Jerry Taylor & Columbia Games Inc.


Version 4.0




Battles are fought one by one after

all movement is completed. Each battle

must be completed before fighting the next

battle. Player 1 determines which battle is

fought first before examining any enemy

blocks. Reveal blocks by tipping them

forward to maintain current Strength. After

that battle is complete, stand all blocks

upright. Player 1 then selects the next

battle but need not commit to any specific

sequence of battles in advance.


Soldiers from Ulster or Wales were

not entirely reliable on the battlefield.

Each time Ulster and Welsh blocks (both

Infantry and archers) are revealed in

battle, roll one die for each block.

1-4: No effect

5-6: Block goes into the English Draw Pool


Battles are fought for a maximum of

3 Combat Rounds. The attacker must

retreat if they have not won by the end of

the third round. Stand all blocks upright

before any Retreats. The other player can

then Regroup.

5.31 Combat Turns

Each block has one Combat Turn

per Combat Round. In its Combat

Turn, a block performs 1 action: Fight,

Retreat, or Pass. All “A” blocks act before

all “B” blocks, which act before all “C”

blocks. Defending “A” blocks act before

Attacking “A” blocks, and so on.

After all blocks have taken 1 Combat

Turn, 1 Combat Round has been fought.

Repeat this sequence for a second or third

round as necessary.

EXAMPLE: A Knight (B3) and an English

Infantry (C2) attack a Scots Noble (B2) and

an Infantry (C2). The combat sequence for

each combat round is: Scots Noble, English

Knight, Scots Infantry, English Infantry.

5.32 Attacker's Reserves

A player may attack via different

borders, or attack using 2 or 3 Group

Moves. The Main Attack Group must be

declared during movement; it must start in

1 area, move together, and enter the battle

together (via the same border). All other

attacking blocks are placed in reserve.

Reserve blocks may not fight, Retreat,

or take hits in Round 1. Reserves are

revealed at the beginning of Round 2 or

remain hidden if the battle is over.

EXAMPLE: The English player has 4

blocks in Angus and 2 in Mar. Both groups

(two moves) attack Buchan. The Attacker

declares the Angus group his Main Attack.

Reserves arrive in Round 2 even if all

other friendly blocks were eliminated in

Round 1. Battlefield Control changes if the

Attacker eliminates all defenders in Round

1 before Defending reinforcements arrive.

The original Attacker is now the Defender

for Rounds 2 and 3. The new Attacker must

Retreat after the 3rd round if not victorious.

5.33 Defender's Reserves

All blocks moved by Player 2 to a

Contested Area are Reserves that arrive in

Round 2.

EXAMPLE: The English attack Buchan

from Angus with 4 blocks where the Scots

have 2 blocks defending. The Scots then

move 3 blocks from Moray to Buchan as

reinforcements that arrive in Round 2.


Each block in its Combat Turn rolls as

many dice as its current Strength. A hit is

scored for each die roll equal to or lower

than the block’s Combat Rating.

EXAMPLE: A Knight with 3 steps rolls 3

dice. Knights have B3 combat, meaning all

rolls of 1, 2, & 3 are hits. Rolls of 4, 5, & 6

are misses. If the dice rolled are 2, 4, & 5,

the knight scores 1 hit and 2 misses.

5.41 Battle Hits

Combat is not simultaneous. All hits are

applied immediately. Enemy blocks are not

targeted individually. Each hit is applied

to the strongest enemy block. If two or

more blocks share the highest Strength, the

owner chooses which to reduce.

EXAMPLE: The English inflict 3 hits. The

Scots have two 4-step blocks and must

apply 1 hit to each, reducing them both to 3

steps and apply the 3rd hit to either block.


Each block may Retreat (instead of

attacking) on its normal Combat Turn.

Blocks must retreat to any available

adjacent Friendly or Neutral area(s).

Blocks cannot retreat to Contested or

Enemy areas.

Border Limits are reset for each Combat

Round, and for Regroups, and for the

mandatory Retreat after 3 rounds.

Border Control: Blocks may not Retreat

via a border that was last used by the

enemy to enter a battle. If both players

used the same border, only Player 2

may Retreat through that border.

Blocks that cannot Retreat when


The schiltrom was a Scottish formation that

grouped footmen, armed with long spears, into

a large hollow square (or oval) where they were

able to resist the deadly charge of heavy horse.

Reinforcements were often harbored in the middle

of the formation so that men could be rushed to

crumbling defensive lines when needed.

Invented by Wallace at Falkirk as a defensive tactic,

Bruce improved schiltroms by employing battle-

hardened veterans capable of moving and attacking

in formation, an idea later refined by Swiss Pikemen

to devastating effect. Although always vulnerable

to massed ranged fire (whether from arrows or

cannon), the schiltrom was a revolutionary tactic

that reduced the power of knights on the battlefield.

Schiltroms (optional rule)

To reflect the dynamics of battles involving

Scottish schiltroms, all Scottish infantry fire at

+1 (C3=C4) in battles when the English side has

no archers.

The Longbow

The war was a proving ground for the English

longbow, a weapon soon to terrorize the French

during the 100 Years War. The longbow had a

range of 350-400 yards, but the necessary draw

weight of 100-175 pounds required great strength

and extensive training. Edward I was the first to

appreciate the potential for this terrible weapon and

its ability to revolutionize the medieval battlefield.

Scottish archers were few and far between – the

shortbowmen and slingers of Etterick Forest were no

match for English or Welsh longbowmen.

Attacker or Defender

Because both players move before combat, a

player can be the Defender in some battles, and

the Attacker in others.

Combat Reserves

Main Attack blocks must start the turn in

the same area, move together, and cross the

same border into battle. All other blocks are

in Reserve. Main Attack blocks cannot be

voluntarily placed in Reserve. Put your main

attack blocks in the area you are attacking and

keep reserves on the border(s) they have used

until they arrive. Celtic Unity rolls for Ulster/

Welsh reserves are not made until they are

revealed at the start of Combat Round 2.

Closing Borders

Only blocks attacking or reinforcing an area

close borders. A move by Player 1 that does not

start a battle does not close any borders.

For example, Player 1 (Scot) moves two blocks

from Badenoch into vacant Atholl, leaving

Badenoch empty. No borders are closed.

Player 2 (English) attacks Atholl from

Strathspey via Badenoch. Now, only the English

can retreat to Badenoch.

Copyright ©2002-19 Jerry Taylor & Columbia Games Inc.


Version 4.0


required are eliminated (5.8).

English blocks may not Retreat/Regroup

into Scotland. Scottish blocks may not

Retreat/Regroup into England.

• “A” blocks Retreat before “B” blocks,

which Retreat before “C” blocks. When

several blocks have the same combat

letter rating, they may retreat at the

same time to hide who went where.

• For Norse Retreats/Regroups see 4.7.


When a battle ends, victorious blocks

(including any in Reserve) stand up and

may immediately Regroup. They may move

(in any order) to adjacent Friendly or

Neutral areas. Border Limits apply (4.3).


When a noble is eliminated in combat

or via Pillage, it immediately switches

to the enemy side (exchange block color)

at Strength 1 and is placed in Reserve.

Captured nobles fight for their new side

beginning in the next Combat Round.

EXCEPTION: The Scots noble Moray

never changes allegiance. If killed in battle

Moray is permanently eliminated.


All Non-noble blocks eliminated by

the Pillage Card, Border Raids, Winter

Attrition, or Disbanding are placed in the

Draw Pool.

The 6 Blocks with a black cross

(sidebar) are only permanently eliminated

if killed in Combat or unable to retreat

when required.

Other non-noble blocks that are

eliminated in Combat are placed in a

player's Draw Pool and may return during

a future turn.


The Scottish player may move to Raid

England (except during a Truce). It costs

1 movement point per block to cross the

Anglo-Scottish Border. (4.4).

If any Scottish blocks occupy England,

the English player must Disband 1 non-

Noble block at the end of every Game

Turn. English Nobles may not be chosen.

The English player does not have to reveal

which block is removed.

Raiding blocks cannot Winter in




The Edward block represents

Edward I until killed in

combat, or until the end of

1306. In either case it then

becomes Edward II. The

switch to Edward II has two effects:

Edward II cannot Winter (7.4) in


If the Edward II block is eliminated in

combat, the Scots win a Sudden Death

Victory (9.1).


The Scots do not have a King

block at the start of play.

Once per game the Scots may

crown a king. There are three

candidates for the throne:

Bruce, Comyn, and Balliol. If a Scottish

King is crowned and later killed, the

English win a Sudden Death Victory (9.1).

6.21 Bruce or Comyn

To crown either Bruce or Comyn:

• Wallace must be dead.

• The candidate must be located in Fife.

• The Scottish player must play any

Event card, announcing "Coronation"

instead of the normal event.

The King block is then placed in

Fife at full strength. The candidate block

remains in play, representing another

family member under normal noble rules.

If Bruce becomes king, all Comyn

nobles except Moray immediately defect

to the English, or if Comyn becomes king,

then all Bruce nobles immediately defect

to the English. Resulting battles are fought

immediately with the defecting noble(s)

as the attacker. Player 1 chooses the order.

6.22 King Balliol

King Balliol, can return from exile.

There are 4 conditions:

• It must be 1301 or later.

• No other king has been crowned.

• The French knight must be on the map.

• The Scottish player must play any

Event card, announcing "Return of the

King" instead of the normal event.

Wallace may be dead or alive. The

king block is immediately deployed at full

strength with the French knight. All Bruce

nobles immediately defect to the English.

Resulting battles are fought immediately

with the defecting noble(s) as the attacker.

Player 1 chooses the order.

Edward the Longshanks

Edward I was one of the leading monarchs of

the Middle Ages. He was a noted pioneer of legal

reforms; a great architect of administrative justice;

an innovator of financial administration; and one

of the founders of parliamentary government.

European Kings and Popes held him in the highest

esteem, and few monarchs ever dominated the

English nobility like Edward.

The Song of Lewes, however, compares Edward

to a brave lion - proud and fierce - but also

unreliable and deceitful. In his later years, Edward's

commitment to justice evolved into cruelty and

judicial murder. He saw the Scottish war as a

rebellion, not a war between nations, and therefore

believed that chivalry did not apply. Gruesome

executions and lawlessness characterized the war.

Edward's conduct was animated by a fierce

determination to preserve, protect, and enhance his

rights as King. Yet he was more a savvy opportunist

than a Machiavellian strategist. It is doubtful that

he had any grand designs on Scotland prior to the

death of his cousin and ally King Alexander III of

Scotland in 1286. But when he was asked by the

leading men of Scotland to adjudicate the dispute

between Bruce and Balliol for the vacant throne

(known to historians as "the Great Cause"), he did

not hesitate to assert a long-standing but dormant

claim to sovereignty over Scotland.

A battle-hardened veteran of the Montfortian

rebellions of 1263-1267, Pope Urban IV's crusade

in 1270, and the Welsh wars of 1277, 1282-1283,

and 1294-1295, Edward was a capable military

commander and a brilliant mobilizer of men,

equipment, and victuals. Scottish victories came only

when Edward I was absent from Scotland or dead.

Black Cross Blocks








French Knights

Defection Battles

Defection battles caused by a CORONATION

EVENT or HERALD CARD are fought

immediately as normal battles (3 rounds

maximum; victor can Regroup, etc.). Player 1

chooses the order.

Coronation & English Event Card

If the English also play an event card it is

resolved first. The Scots may wait until after the

English turn to decide whether to use the card

as a Coronation or the listed event. Coronation

Battles are fought before the year ends.

Raids and Truces

The Scots cannot initiate a Border Raid during

a Truce even if England is empty. Scots blocks

already in England can remain there during a

Truce (and the English player would still have to

remove a block).

Copyright ©2002-19 Jerry Taylor & Columbia Games Inc.


Version 4.0



A game year ends if both players play

an Event card at the same time, or after

all five cards have been played. Cards are

never carried forward into the next year.

When a Year ends, there is a special

Winter Turn during which nobles return to

their home areas and players prepare for

the next year. Play the Winter actions in the

exact order given.


First, all English nobles move to

their Home Areas. If that area is enemy-

occupied, the noble defects to the Scots at

current strength (change to Blue block).

Then, all Scots nobles move to their

Home Areas. If that area is enemy-

occupied, the noble defects to the English at

current strength (change to Red block).

Nobles cannot disband (except Moray).

MORAY: Moray may move home or

remain where he is located (subject to Castle

Limit). He may also disband (7.5).

7.12 Bruce & Comyn

Bruce and Comyn must move to either

of two areas. They are only converted

if both their Home Areas are enemy-

occupied. The new owner may put the

converted block in either Home Area.


The King may move to any Friendly or

Neutral cathedral, remain where located

(subject to the Castle Limit), or Disband.


All blocks in England must Disband.

7.31 Knights, Archers & Hobelars

Archers, Knights, and Hobelars must

Disband (exception see 7.4).

7.32 English Infantry

Infantry (including Wales and Ulster)

may remain in Scotland subject to Castle

Limits or Disband. Infantry that exceed

Castle Limits must Disband (owner choice).


If located in Scotland, Edward I may

Winter there or Disband.

Edward II may not Winter in Scotland.

Edward I cannot spend two consecutive

winters in Scotland nor Winter in

Scotland in 1306.

All red blocks (except Nobles) may

Winter with Edward regardless of the

area's Castle Limit.

WARNING: When Edward winters in

Scotland, there is no Feudal Levy and

England begins the next year empty.


Scots blocks may remain in areas

subject to Castle Limits or Disband to the

draw pool. Non-noble blocks exceeding

Castle Limits must Disband (owner choice).

EXCEPTION: Wallace may move to

Selkirk (unless enemy occupied) where he

gains 2 steps.


A friendly area generates Replacement

Points (RPs) equal to its Castle Limit

(Angus = 2 RPs). A Cathedral adds +1RP

to the Scottish Castle Limit for the area.

7.61 French Knights

If the Scots control 8+ nobles, add the

French knights to the Scottish Draw Pool.

Once drawn, the block remains in play

until eliminated (5.8).

7.62 Scottish Builds

Each RP is used to either:

• Draw 1 block from the pool and deploy

it in that area at strength 1.

• Build 1 step on 1 existing block in that


RPs can be used in any combination

of Builds or Draws. Multiple steps may be

added to one block. Players may add steps

to blocks just drawn. RPs cannot be saved.

When drawing blocks, Castle Limits

must be obeyed. Hence, no additional

blocks can be added to Buchan if two

blocks are already there.

If the Norse or French are drawn

for Lanark or Badenoch (inland), draw a

different block and then put the Norse/

French back in the pool

7.63 English Builds

The English player may use RPs

generated by a Friendly area to strengthen

only infantry or nobles located there.


The English player receives new blocks

by a Feudal Levy, except when Edward I

is wintering in Scotland.

Shuffle all blocks (face-down) in the

Draw Pool.

Draw one half (round up) and deploy

them at full strength in England.


Shuffle the deck and deal out five new

cards to each player and play the next year.

The Scottish Nobility

The elimination of a Scottish noble block does

not necessarily imply the death of that noble.

Nobles were often captured in battle and held

hostage to ensure the loyalty of retainers and

heirs. Other times, after a brief imprisonment,

captured nobles would be pardoned and allowed

to go free upon a pledge of loyalty to their

captors. The death of a noble on the battlefield

meant a new feudal lord of the household, and

newly empowered lords often had different ideas

about the rebellion than their predecessors.

Beneath the real-politic, however, was a

smoldering hatred for the English that could

never be extinguished. Observed the English

Lanercost Chronicle, a history of the war written

at the time:

"In all these aforesaid campaigns the Scots were

so divided among themselves that sometimes the

father was on the Scottish side and the son on the

English, and vice versa; also one brother might

be with the Scots and another with the English;

yea, even the same individual be first with one

party and then with the other. But all those who

were with the English were merely feigning, either

because it was the stronger party, or in order to

save the lands they possessed in England; for

their hearts were always with their own people,

although their persons might not be so."

The English Levy

By feudal custom, the English king would often

petition his major nobles to raise an army,

sometimes to fight in France, sometimes in Scotland,

sometimes both. Economic and political realities,

plus the demands of fighting in France (which was

by far the more important of the two areas to the

English king) meant that a major campaign into

Scotland could not occur every year.

In game terms, the English player will only be

able to mount a major campaign into Scotland

with a high movement hand. With a good

movement hand, it is possible to get as far

north as Moray in one year. However, wintering

an army with Edward I at Mentieth or Fife is

often the only practical way to campaign in the

northern highlands.


Unlike the Scots, the English player cannot use

RPs to deploy blocks from the Draw Pool

Replacement steps cannot be saved. Any steps

that cannot be used are forfeit.


Disbanded blocks are not permanently

eliminated; they go to the draw pool.

Noble Home Areas

Nobles (except Moray) cannot Disband, even to

make room for other blocks. In locations with

castle value 1, the noble is the the only block

that remains over winter.

Copyright ©2002-19 Jerry Taylor & Columbia Games Inc.


Version 4.0




The Scottish nobility was reduced after

the battle of Dunbar to abject servitude and

humiliation. But in the ashes of defeat two

courageous young men rose to continue the

fight against tremendous odds.

William Wallace had turned brigand in

1294. His murderous guerrilla war against the

English culminated in the sack of Lanark in

1297. Suddenly, the invincible English looked

invincible no longer. Meanwhile, Andrew de

Moray, a young knight from one of Scotland's

major land-owning families in the north,

launched a bloody uprising in the Highlands.

Scotland, already smoldering with

discontent and sporadic resistance by the

fall of 1296, flamed into open rebellion by

the spring of 1297. It took Longshanks seven

years to put out the fire lit by these two heroes.


1297 through 1305, unless one side

achieves a Sudden Death victory.


Deploy the blocks listed below at full

strength on the mapboard:

Nobles: All nobles (except Bruce,

Moray, and Galloway) in their home

areas. Comyn is deployed in Badenoch.

Lothian: Cumbria Infantry.

Mentieth: Northumber Infantry.

England: Place the 13 other red blocks

in the English Draw Pool face-down.

Draw 4 blocks and deploy in England

at full strength.


Deploy the blocks listed below at full

strength on the mapboard:

Annan: Bruce.

Galloway: Galloway.

Fife: Wallace, Douglas, & Barclay.

Moray: Moray, Fraser.

Strathspey: Grant.

The Scottish King (6.2) and French

knights (7.61) are off map. Place the other

7 blue blocks in the Scottish Draw Pool



After John Comyn's negotiated surrender

to Longshanks in February 1304, an uneasy

peace returned to Scotland. Robert Bruce had

not supported Comyn's rebellion and resented

Edward's betrayal of his promise to deliver

him the Scottish throne. Bruce conspired with

sympathetic nobles and the leadership of

the Scottish church to seize the throne and

inspire his countrymen to revolt, a task made

easy when news spread of Wallace's brutal

execution in August 1305.

Bruce and John Comyn met alone in a

Dumfries church. They engaged in violent

argument over the wisdom of Bruce's plans; it

ended with Bruce's knife in Comyn's heart.

With the absolution of the Scottish clergy,

Bruce was crowned at Scone on March 10,

1306, the 10th anniversary of the outbreak

of the rebellion. Faced with civil war against

Comyn loyalists and imminent attack from

England, Bruce desperately assembled an

army and prepared for the worst.


1306 through 1314, unless one side

achieves a Sudden Death victory.


Deploy the blocks listed below at full

strength on the mapboard:

Nobles: all 6 Comyn nobles (not Moray)

in their home areas. Comyn is deployed

in Badenoch.

Moray: Cumbria Infantry.

Mentieth: Mentieth, Northumber Infantry

Lothian: Durham Infantry.

Lanark: Stewart, Westmor Infantry.

England: Place the 11 other red blocks

in the English Draw Pool face down

and draw 6 blocks in England.

IMPORTANT: The English cannot

Winter in Scotland in this scenario because

Edward I died in 1306.


Deploy the blocks listed below at full

strength on the mapboard:

Nobles: Dunbar, Lennox, Atholl, Mar

in their home areas. Deploy Bruce in


Fife: King, Douglas, Barclay.

Lennox: Campbell.

Carrick: Lindsay.

Wallace and Moray are both dead. The

French knights can enter as per 7.61.

Place the other 7 blue blocks in the

Scottish Draw Pool face-down.

Comyn & Bruce

The bitter struggle between the Bruce and Comyn

factions for control of Scotland defined the conflict.

Robert the Bruce was determined to win the Scottish

throne that was - in his mind - wrongfully denied

his family after King Alexander III's death in 1286.

Bruce's changing allegiances during the first conflict

(1297-1304) suggest that his main priority was

possession of the crown, not national independence.

The Comyns, on the other hand, were the most

powerful members of the Scottish "war party" and

strong supporters of the exiled King John Balliol.

This made them not only natural enemies of the

Bruce but also implacable foes of the English. They

led the rebellion against England after Wallace’s

defeat at Falkirk in 1298, and made reluctant peace

with Edward in 1304 after the English king agreed

they could keep their lands. John "The Red" Comyn,

the Lord of Badenoch, was murdered by Bruce in a

Dumfries church in 1306. Bruce was absolved and

crowned a month later. From then on, the Comyns

turned away from the cause of freedom and made

firm alliance with the English.

The Auld Alliance

The Anglo-French conflict constrained Edward’s

ability to prosecute the war in Scotland. French

King Philip’s savage naval raids against English

seaports in 1295 caused hysteria throughout the

realm and ensured that England would concentrate

her primary attention southward. The disastrous

Flemish campaign in 1297, reinforced anxiety over

affairs across the channel.

By 1302, rumors reached England that the French

were planning to send the Count of Artois at the

head of a large force of knights to return the exiled

King John Balliol to the Scottish throne. Alarmed

that the Balliol dynasty might be reestablished at

his expense, Robert the Bruce defected from the

rebellion and made common cause with Edward

I, who promised that, should he ever reestablish

English authority in Scotland, Bruce would be King.

On July 11, 1302, however, the threat of a French

invasion of Scotland was squashed forever. 13,000

men of Flanders adopted the schiltrom tactics

pioneered by Wallace at Falkirk and slaughtered

7,500 French horse at the battle of Courtrai. When

news of the disaster reached Scotland, the heart

went out of the rebellion and Edward confidently

turned his full attention to finishing off Comyn and

his allies. By 1304, the war – so nearly won by the

rebellious Scots two years earlier – had ended.

Another, however, was about to begin.

Copyright ©2002-19 Jerry Taylor & Columbia Games Inc.


Version 4.0



This game starts as per Braveheart

scenario and is played until one player

achieves victory. Extend game years

beyond 1314 if necessary.

REMEMBER: Edward I cannot winter in

Scotland in 1306 and becomes Edward II

in 1307.


The object of the game is to control

a majority of Nobles at the end of the

scenario. In the Braveheart Scenario, a tie

is possible if both players control seven

nobles at the end of 1305. In this case, the

Scots win if Wallace is on the map; the

English win if Wallace is dead or in the

Draw Pool.

9.1 Sudden Death

An instant victory occurs when:

• Either player controls all nobles in play

at the end of a Game Turn.

Remember: Moray never defects to

the English; he must be dead or in the

Draw Pool for the English to win in this


• The English player wins immediately if

the Scottish King is eliminated in battle


• The Scottish player wins immediately

if the Edward II is eliminated in battle


Declaration of Arbroath, April 6, 1320

Yet if he [Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland] should

give up what he has begun, and agree to make us or

our kingdom subject to the King of England or the

English, we should exert ourselves at once to drive

him out as our enemy and a subverter of his own

rights and ours, and make some other man who was

well able to defend us our King; for, as long as but

a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any

conditions be brought under English rule. It is in

truth not for glory, nor for riches, nor honors that we

are fighting, but for freedom – for that alone, which

no honest man gives up but with life itself.


The preferred method to establish

sides is for all players to secretly bid one

of E1, E2, E3, S1, S2, or S3.

Bids to play the English (E#) are for

the number of years they will play with

King Edward face-up in the Draw Pool,

not eligible to be drawn, but still counting

toward feudal levy size.

Bids to play the Scottish (S#) are how

many extra blocks will be added to the

English Feudal Levy in 1297, above the

usual 4.

The tournament GM compares bids.

Opposite bids cancel each other out and

these players play against each other.

Hence an E3 bid plays an S3 bid and

neither effect applies.

Remaining bids are matched as closely

as possible with the net effect being

applied to the higher bidding player. Hence

an E2 versus S1 game has a net of E1 and

thus Edward is not in play for 1297.


Game Design:

Tom Dalgliesh

Jerry Taylor


Grant Dalgliesh

George Seary

Cal Stengel


Mark Churms (Cover)

Tom Dalgliesh (Blocks)

Jerry Taylor (Map)


Nick Barker

Leonard Coufal

Ananda Gupta

Jeff Grant

Robert Holzer

Arius Kaufman

Bob McDonald

Ian Notter

Michael Tanner

Charles Vasey

Dave Walton


Anglo-Scottish Border


Area Control






Battle Hits


Battle Reinforcements


Battle Sequence


Border Control


Border Limits


Border Raids


Castle Limits




Celtic Unity


Combat Eliminations


Combat Rating


Combat Reserves


Combat Resolution


Combat Rounds


Combat Turns


Contested Areas


Enemy Areas


English Builds


English Feudal Levy


French Knights


Friendly Areas


Group Move


Home Areas (Nobles)




Kings: English


Kings: Scottish

6.2, 7.2


5.7, 7.1



Group Move


Move Rating


Neutral Areas





5.7, 7.1

Home Areas

1.4, 7.1


2.26, 4.7





Replacement Points (RPs)








The Bruce


Scottish King

6.2, 7.2

Scottish Builds







2.21, 7.5

Winter Builds




WA 98231 USA


800/636-3631 (toll free)

For game updates and discussion, see:


Copyright ©2002-19 Jerry Taylor & Columbia Games Inc.


Version 4.0